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  5. "I had porridge for breakfast…

"I had porridge for breakfast."

Translation:Ces i uwd i frecwast.

October 20, 2016



Why has ces mutated into ges? I though that was if it was negative or a question


This is a normal pattern for this particular word in the colloquial language. You will also sometimes hear people say Wnes i... instead of Gwnes i....

The reason is that the mutation is caused by the ghostly presence of the partcle Mi or Fe in front of the word. Mi/Fe is a 'positive marker' that some people put before a positive statement to distinguish it from a question or a negative:

  • (Mi/Fe) ges i goffi - I had a coffee

Even if Mi/Fe is not always used, the mutation can remain and with Ges i... it is usual.

The initial mutations for questions (soft) and negatives (mixed) are also caused by particles which are no longer generally used in the colloquial language (A and Ni respectively)..


Are there any other common situations where these 'ghostly presences' haunt Welsh sentances, manifesting as mutations?


One which does come up is, for example:

  • Beth mae e’n (ei) wneud? - What is he doing?

where the ei causes a soft mutation of the following word. The ei is often dropped, especially in speech, but the mutation usually remains.


Is "Mi wnes i uwd i frecwast" an accepted construction (couldn't try it with only box words)?


No - for 'I had porridge for breakfast'.

Yes - for 'I made porridge for breakfast'.


Oh yes - that's right! The other version I've heard is of course "Mi wnes i gael uwd i frecwast", but that isn't exactly the same (and probably shouldn't be accepted here). My mind must've slipped, reading about 'wnes' in a post further up here and thinking that wnes (do/make) came from cael (?!?!? :-) ).

Thanks for clearing up the mist in my mind! :-D

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