I have just learned ar bwys. Curiously, the Ap Geiriaduron does not list this expression.
Since ar ('on') entails a soft mutation of the following word, I presume that bwys is originally pwys. But the two meanings I found for this word are 'pound' (i.e. 16 ounces) and 'emphasis'. I was expecting something like 'proximity, closeness'.
So I am just curious about how ar and pwys relate in order to produce the meaning of 'near, next to'.
ar bwys means 'near'.
wrth, ar ymyl, yn ymyl or gerllaw are all better for 'beside' in this context.
Then the translation "next to" used in the "best" translation at the top of this discussion page is confusing / misleading.
At least for me, "next to" and "near" are not the same thing: "next to" is very close, usually touching, while "near" is a little bit further away and not touching.
(Also, I thought yn ymyl is "near, close by", not "next to, beside, at the side of".)
'Pub' is the usual word in modern Britain. 'Tavern/inn' is strictly for period dramas on TV!
Probably somebody being over-enthusiastic with the translations some time ago. I'll try and delete them shortly - they are just not used nowadays in English here.
Because that would be like saying "The shop next to the pub". Welsh is a verb-subject-object language and therefore the verb comes first i.e in this instance the verb is "Mae" and to remove it would make the sentence incorrect.
See the notes for the section on 'The', where there three forms yr/'r/y are fully explained. If y follows a vowel it has to change to 'r and be placed at the end of the preceding word.
As EllisV says, mae is needed as it is the verb 'is' in the sentence