No it is not, because you have switched the adjective from "shirts" to "children".
in this story, the shirts are clean and we don't know about the children:
- the clean children's shirts = les chemises des enfants propres
- the children's clean shirts = les chemises propres des enfants.
'Children's shirts' is a thing, a common phrase where 'children's describes what kind of... or it indicates which shirts.
The clean [children's shirts.] as opposed to...
The [clean children's] shirts.
The difference is sometimes heard in the way it is spoken.
I still don't know if it is, or is not, an equivalent translation.
Aren't there a few words in your native language with several meanings?
- une chemise propre = a clean shirt: placement after the noun
- ma propre chemise = my own shirt: placement before the noun.
The placement rule is consistent with the meaning.
Besides, the explanation of this case has been available above on this very thread for over a year.
"des" is the indefinite article that English does not have.
It is the plural of "un" or "une" and it means "more than one".
You have to use it when the noun is countable and when the singular noun would have "a/an".
In this sentence "des" is a contracted definite article, contracted from the preposition "de" + the plural definite article "les".
"Les chemises des enfants" stands for "les chemises de+les enfants" = of the children