"Haben wir genug Stimmen?"
Übersetzung:Do we have enough votes?
You can't use we've like that at all. Same applies with "I've". When using Do to form a question, don't abbreviate We have or I have.
You can of course ask questions with these contractions - by intonation or by tag:
"We've got enough votes?" or "We've got enough votes, right?"
Or even for a change - the German way (only for possessive "have", and when the meaning wouldn't be confused with other meanings for "have"), though it sounds a little old-fashioned:
"Have we enough votes?"
You cannot do that with most verbs though.
I should add it is possible that some more obscure dialects may allow "Do I've/we've". I've never heard it though.