That is a very good question, indeed, have 3 lingots!
The problem is, that in this sentence the "Das" is not a definite article, but a demonstrative pronoun, that happens also to be "das".
Therefore, because we do not have a definite article, this is actually "strong inflection".
If you take "zusätzlich" apart you get "zu", "setzen" and "lich".
"lich" makes an adjective or adverb from other words. "das Glück/glücklich" "luck/lucky"; "grün/grünlich" "green/greenish", "klein/kleinlich" "small/small-minded, petty",
"Zusatz" is a noun from the verb "zusetzen" "adding". Something that has been "zugesetzt" "added".
"zusetzen" has an secondary meaning "to get to you" (like a shock), however here it is to add. "zu" is "to" and "setzen" is "to sit" if you sit yourself. If you inflict "setzen" on something else it means "to put". "zusetzen" means to put something to something else, thus to add.
setzen, zusetzen, Zusatz, zusätzlich. I hope this helps.
Does anyone have a good rule for picking the right definite plural article? When I speak I often interchange Das, Die and Sie without knowing which one is correct for the situation. Eg why is it "Das sind zusätzliche Eier" as opposed to "Die sind zusätzliche Eier" or "Sie sind zusätzliche Eier"
Vielen Dank im Voraus!
Thanks, your explanation of das/sie is helpful. das = that/those, sie = they
BUT I have definitely heard “die” used in spoken german to represent a definite plural article. For example:
Q) Was sind die? A) Die sind zusätzliche Eier.
I know the above sentences are probably wrong, but can someone (perhaps a native speaker) shed some light on when (and if) “die” can be used as a definite plural article? I asked a couple of native speakers once but they weren’t able to tell me what the rules were, only that it’s just right sometimes. like how we know to say “broke” instead of “breaked”.
Maybe some more grammar jargon is useful for you. As you already know "der, die, das" are the definite articles. They function as articles when they are connected to a noun like "der Apfel, die Katze, das Kind". A more general term is determiner. This includes all kinds of words that can take the place of an article. You can make a distinction between definite and indefinite types of articles, which has an influence on endings of the determiner itself and any adjectives (look for declension of adjectives).
definite type determiners: der/die/das, welcher/welche/welches, dieser/diese/dieses... indefinite type determiners: ein/eine/ein, kein/keine/kein, mein/meine/mein (and all the other possesives
Determiners can also become pronouns. This is when they replace the noun. "The" in English cannot do that.
Der Apfel ist rot. The apple is red. (Der as an article)
Der ist rot. That one is red. (Der as a pronoun)
"Das" is used as an impersonal pronoun in this way like "that" in English. It does not have to replace an established specific noun.
Das ist rot. That is red.
Any of the other genders should always be translated as "that one". This is also true in cases were "das" refers to a specific noun introduced in the context.
Die Kinder bekommen einen Sonnenbrand. Das hier ist schon ganz rot.
The children are getting a sunburn. This one is already quite red.
Plurals are a tricky thing, because in English the number of the pronoun must agree with the number of the verb. You may not say
[That are] Wrong!.
Instead you have to change the pronoun to these or those. German is more flexible in this way (as are other languages like French for example).
Das sind Kinder. Ce sont des enfants. (singular pronoun, plural verb)
[That are children.] (number differences are not tolerated in English grammar)
So you have to turn the impersonal pronoun "that" into a plural form these/those.
These are children.
Translating this back into German poses a problem. Did you mean something unspecific like "Here are children." or something more specific like "These ones are children."?
These are children. Das sind Kinder. (unspecific)
These (ones) are children. Die sind Kinder. or Diese sind Kinder.
I hope this helps.
Wow, thanks for that great Answer! I think I understand now how “die” can be used.
Am I right to assume that the following are BOTH correct based on your example?
Die Äpfel sind rot. The apples are red. (Die as an article)
Die sind rot. Those apples are red. (Die as a pronoun)
I think you meant the right thing, but you have to drop "apples" from the translation of the pronoun version.
Die sind rot. Those (ones) are red.
Here's a new concept to throw you off:
Das sind Rote. These are red ones.
"Rote" is capitalized because it is a adjective turned into a noun. (with nominative plural ending)
That's right. (At least in the nominative and accusative cases.)
When there is no article or other determiner, adjectives take strong inflection, and that is -e in the nominative and accusative plural.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_adjectives has the ending tables for all three kinds of adjective inflection (strong, mixed, weak).