It's incredible how languages are related to each other, and how how our mother tongues lets us understand more a certain language over another one. In my case, my mother tongue is Spanish, so I perfectly understand this sentence, and the one PetiPri wrote, since we use similar expressions in Spanish. So it is pretty nice to see how we can help others because we are more familiar with these expressions, and how others can help us when expressions are more similar to their mother tongues.
It's nice to read the conversations!
I would like to learn Finnish so much! I love Finnish culture and language! I hope we can learn it in Duolingo soon.
LOL Seda, not crazy at all just inquisitive perhaps. Got the bug from others from Duo. You should see some people are learning 23 to 24 languages on Duo. Compared to them I'm a novice perhaps lol. Some of the languages are more challenging than others, but it is the satisfaction of knowing that I can pick out sentences in languages that some months ago I couldn't understand a word in, that keeps me going. It is probably addictive, you should probably try it. Good luck with your learning on Duo.
I am a Greek and our language is incredibly different from all the othee european languages. Guys, give us some applause for really striving to learn foreigb languages, it is very difficult for us due to our mothee tongue :3
Kudos to you! I'd love to learn some Greek, but yeah, your language seems intimidating, though I love to listen to it. =D
I tried Greek once and gave up! Once I figure out Italian maybe I will try again. :)
Same here too, but since we're learnig from English I still get confused until i think that is exactly what it would be in Spanish. :) Lingots for everyone!
I'm Indonesian, and almost every Indonesians are at least bilingual (we have unique local languange on each region). Most people are trilingual (with English), and quite a few goes quadrilingual and beyond with local languages from another region or extra foreign language.
One of the joy of learning a language is when I discover connections between languages such as this :)
Speaking German,on the other hand,will not help as kalt which sounds similar to caldo means cold. I find such similarities between Spanish and Italian not so astonishing as they are both romance languages. What amazes me more is how languages that are further away still relate. Compare tu to ты in Russian and voi to вы(vy).
When you ask "how are you" in a polite way in Chinese you say "ni shenti hao ma" (literally how is your health) If you compare that to the Italian "come senti" you see how remarkably similar senti and shenti are.
And your (singular nominative masculine) in Russian is твой (tvoi), almost like the Italian "tuoi" (even though it's plural) Learning German at the university I see that some idioms are the same in German and in Russian, but different in English. It really is interesting :)
In Russian Empire in 18-19 centuries there were a lot of scientists, statesmen and officers with German origin. They gave to Russian language many words (including idioms) from German. For example, Russian "целиком и полностью" is a calque from German "ganz und voll".
How could you have understood this so easily in Spanish? Caldo means broth in Spanish! My mother tongue is also Spanish
Well, because I knew "caldo" meant "hot". Though, if you think about it, sometimes the weather is hot as caldo, =P.
You are absolutely right. On the other hand, last year i did the spanish course it was hard at the beginning but I got the hang of it faster than other languages (My Arabic and English background helped a lot) however, now that I'm doing the italian course, it completely messed up my Spanish! I feel like I need to do the Italian for Spanish speakers to make sense of it all!! Does anyone agree with me?
I see that in Italian, like in French, one describes the weather as DOING things rather than BEING things.
So it's also correct to say the day 'is' hot. I get confused with when to use Fa and when to use e. Is there are common list of scenarios where we should use Fa?
I visit a Italian lessons and I've never hear that you can say è caldo. If you want to use correct italian you say fa caldo. Looks better for me
Once upon a time when people still believed in God, they used to say that it's Him who makes it hot or makes it rain. We've preserved these expressions, but not as much of our faith.
Have a lingot for your very clever analysis of why we have to say somebody makes the weather!
Indeed, in French we always say "il fait beau/chaud/froid aujourd'hui". But the weather is not actually doing things, because "il" at the beginning means that it is an impersonal sentence : "il" doesn't refer to "aujourd'hui" -today- at least from a grammatical point of view. But it doesn't look the same in italian (any native speaker to explain if oggi is the subject of 'fa/è' in such sentences ? thx)
Remember in Italian they do not have to put the subject pronoun. This is an impersonal expression also.
"Fa" doesn't mean "it is," but that's just how Italians' describe weather. as GoodLordigans pointed out, one describes the weather as doing things rather than being things. Fa caldo= it's hot. Fa fredo=it's cold. (Fa is the third person singular of FARE=to do/make)
I am correct in my assumption "Fa caldo oggi" is a shortened version "Esso fa caldo oggi"? And basically everything that starts with 'e' meaning 'it' is 'Esso e'?
I don't think so. English requires subject pronouns, even when there really isn't a subject. When we say "It's raining", there is no "it", it's just a dummy pronoun to satisfy grammar rules. But since Italian allows for a null subject, there is no reason to think that there's a missing pronoun in "Fa caldo".
Thank you, royastar, and GoodLordigans, I wondered, too, about "fa" versus "e" caldo oggi.
Actually "oggi" is not the subject, but a complement. That's why you could say "La mattina e il pomeriggio fa caldo" and not "fanno caldo". There is no subject in this type of sentence!
Lol, this certainly helps me memorizing this sentence structure and the word caldo!
It's intersting that with the weather it's 'fa caldo' (does heat), while with a person it's 'ho caldo' (I have heat)
"fa" is one of the "verbi impersonali" (come "bisogna"), a verb which is used only with lei lui (e') and when talking about mostly weather. the verb "fa" is used for generalization. for example : fa freddo (its cold) fa brutto tempo (terrible weather) quando fa clado bisogna bere l'acqua I hope that it'll be helpful :)
Italian defaults to masculine when no subject is declared or understood. As a helping rule of thumb, think about the sun (il sole), the day (il giorno) or some other (genderless in English, masculine in Italian) symbol for heat when talking about the weather.
Fa bel tempo :)
I think that it's because "caldo" is a masculine noun, the same as "calor" is in Spanish and "chaud" is in French and that this are seen as doing things or things that take action, effect.
P.S.: "calor" sometimes is used as feminine and there exists "chaleur" feminine in French.
Sorry but no, "caldo" is not a noun here, it is an adjective. Eighfowr's explanation above is certainly closer to the truth: masculine is the default mode.
Difficult for English and Germans :-), because it sounds so close to cold in Englisch and kalt in German. And that is exactly the reverse.
Even though I know what it means, the translation for caldo that first comes to my mind is always cold...
Think of the word "sCALDing" in English. That's my go-to mnemonic device!
One of the translation options that show when I hover over the word "caldo" with the mouse is "hoft". I never heard this word before, what does it mean? Native english speakers, help.
Fa is the 3rd-person singular conjugation of Fare. In Italian, you use Fare, and not Essere, with the weather :)
Like hace in Spanish, right? Grazie, I like knowing the infinitive (right word?) form of the word I'm using.
Math is not the choice "(Math) is" is the option which means in math "fa" is used to mean "is" as in "one plus one is two" or "one plus one makes two". The definition hints are for the word and may or may not fit into the sentence that we are looking at. http://italian.about.com/library/fare/blfare135a.htm Italian Math http://dictionary.reverso.net/italian-english/fa http://italian.about.com/video/How-to-Say--How-s-the-Weather---in-Italian.htm
And also, Nikos, Greek is challenging for English speakers. I've been learning Greek (siga, siga) for 10 years using the BBC's Greek language and People. DuoLingo makes learning a language fun, so a request for the DuoLingo team: please please build a Greek course
I take it from all these discussions, that you can never say "E caldo oggi". Is this right?
I too am a little confused. I thought: It is (E) hot (caldo) today (oggi)--would be correct rather than Fa caldo oggi. Could someone clarify this for me. Thank you.
A lot of the romance languages have this quirk (as I've explained several times in this comment thread alone). In french it's "Il fait chaud", in Italian 'Fa caldo' Basically fare is used to indicate what the weather is, was, or will be. If it helps to think that "it is made X today" as a translation but it's really best to learn that this is the idiom.
"warm" should also be an acceptable translation according to my Collins dictionary
Must be a throwback to the days of the weather god Meteora who made the weather...? It is just a bit more modern/ scientific or something else in English so we need a book of Italian idioms I guess..
is caldo only used for talking aboit the weather o can also be used for something else
No, it may seem strange to you, but this is the idiom that is used for weather. It's similar to the French where the equivalent would be 'Il fait chaud'. Again using the verb which normally means to do or to make. So literally it is 'it does hot' or 'it makes hot', and it is very strange to English ears, but I assure you this is the convention and what all native speakers use.
I am American and I...honestly have no idea why everyone is excitedly telling everyone where they are from. What's so significant about this sentence?
I wrote exactly what it says and it said i was wrong. What is wrong with the system?
"Fa" literally means "makes".
Different languages use different fundamental idioms. Just because we say "It is cold" in English doesn't mean it makes any sense to say "È caldo" in Italian when discussing the weather.
Italian and English are different languages with different grammar rules.
"Fa caldo oggi" literally means "Makes cold today". You can drop the subject pronoun in Italian 99% of the time. And when there really is no subject to point to, as in statements about the weather, then it is not grammatical to have a subject pronoun at all.
In English, we only say "it" is cold because we can't drop subject pronouns, and we insert what are called dummy pronouns even when there's nothing it's pointing to, just to fulfill the grammar requirements.
Also, in English we say it "is" cold and in Italian they say "makes" cold. There is no objective reason why it should be one way or the other, or another way altogether. The languages just frame things differently.
Today is the object being described directly, so you don't need the pronoun 'it'. Would any English native speaker please correct me?
Standard English grammar requires a subject pronoun, even if it's not referring to anything concrete. It's called the "dummy subject". Therefore it must be "It is raining" or "It is cold", etc.
Because the default is masculine. Also, it might be a noun in this context, as the literal calque is "Makes cold today".
perché come questo, perché "fa"? Penso che "è caldo oggi" è normale ma il mio italiano non è ottimo... allora, prego per un chiarimento :)
Okay, so I knew what 'Caldo' and 'Oggi' meant so I wasn't far off; I wrote: Today is hot, and got it wrong. What irritates me were the hints listed for 'Fa': Makes, Made, Ago. How do any of these 3 fit this sentence?! How am I supposed to know?!
"Fa" meaning "it makes" and "fa" meaning "ago" are just homonyms. The hover hints are just raw dictionary entries that don't know anything about the context of the sentence.
No need to shout. It's just the idiom that Italian uses for the weather. Just because 'it is' is used in English doesn't mean it has to be used everywhere else. The french is somewhat similar. "Il fait chaud". Which you would know if you had bothered to read the comments on this thread before posting.
The more important part of it, the is, can be found in a darker font color and not in parenthesis. Fa is a verb, and Italian likes to drop pronouns.
It said "(Math) is" because in the context of mathematics, "fa" is used the way we'd say "is". For example, five plus three is eight. More literally with "fa", "five plus three makes eight".
Well, the simplest answer is 'that's the idiom the Italians use'. It's similar to the French 'Il fait chaud', both basically mean 'it makes hot' literally but what it means is that the weather is hot. Which if you had read the rest of the comments before posting you might have seen.
Because their idiom is not "It is cold", but rather "It makes/does cold". Different language, different setup.
Haha, saying "extra" is slang where I live. Basically, I was asking why Duolingo made the sentence difficult when they could have just put this sentence simply, like "E caldo oggi".
Duolingo is not making anything difficult. It's "Fa caldo" because that's how they say it in Italian. Different languages are not just word-for-word mirrors of each other. English and Italian have different roots and different histories. Different languages say things differently.
If we were Italian speakers learning English, your question would be "Why is Duolingo teaching us to say "It is hot" when they could just put it simply, like "Makes hot".