"I cannot stay here."
Translation:Nem tudok itt maradni.
Maradhat is the potential form of Marad (From Wiktionary. maradhat: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/maradhat) // You can find the Conjugation Table here.
-hat (back vowels verbs) and -het (front vowel verbs) are potential suffixes:
1) -hat (potential suffix) can, could, may, might, be allowed to. Added to verbs, indicating possibility or permission.
More examples of verbs suffixed with -hat:
More examples of verbs suffixed with -het:
That is right. To bring the two meanings closer (or to show you the logic why it is used for both), you can think of "tudni" as "to know how to".
Eg. "Tudok vezetni" = "I know how to drive"
But of course there are situations where this won't cut it: for example an injured runner could say "tudok futni", not meaning that he learned how to run, but only that he is able to
Yes, judging by the comments I found only during one lesson, we shouldn't spread this "know how to" interpretation any further. "tudok csinálni" doesn't truly have that connotation, only the ability one - and of course, sometimes the ability and the knowledge go hand in hand.
Actually, even your example is suspicious for me - like I "know how to drive" but I can't drive, neither do I have a driving licence. Tudom, hogy kell vezetni (theoretical knowledge), de nem tudok vezetni (I'm not able to actually drive), és nem is vezethetek (I'm not allowed to drive, I don't get the choice to drive).
I recommend keeping to the proposed word order :) For your version to work, you'd need a very twisted context: already knowing that you can stay somewhere, but specifying that it is not that place. And I say twisted, because if it came up in consecutive sentences, you'd normally omit the verb (maradhatok). For example:
"Where are you going? Your dad says that you can stay in the house."
"Yes, but not here, only downstairs."
"Hova mész? Apád azt mondja, a házban maradhatsz."
"Igen, de nem itt (maradhatok), hanem csak a földszinten."
"tudok" = "I know [indefinite object] "; "tudom" = "I know [definite object] " - if the object is omitted = "I know it".
If it refers to a verb - here "tudok maradni" - then you use "tudok" is the verb has no object or an indefinite object and "tudom" if the verb has a definite object.