The 100 most common German verbs - past participle and simple past

German verbs are generally categorized as weak, strong and mixed/irregular, depending on whether the stem form of the word changes in different tenses.

1) Weak verbs do not change their stem vowels in any tense.

The past participle ends in -t (while many PP forms start with "ge-" like "gearbeitet", several exceptions like "erklärt" exist)

German weak verbs (Click to enlarge)

2) Strong verbs change their form in one or more tenses.

The past participle ends in -en.

German strong verbs) (Click to enlarge)

3) Mixed verbs display elements of strong and weak verbs. Modal verbs indicated by *.

German mixed verbs (Click to enlarge)

October 28, 2016

This discussion is locked.

Very nice, just a few tiny mistakes:

(an)bieten simple past bot (an) Nehmen simple past nahm

October 28, 2016

Good catch! Thanks

October 28, 2016

i think setzen means to sit. you have written 'to set' or am i wrong?

November 2, 2016

You are indeed wrong.

  • setzen = to set (something somewhere), to seat (someone)
  • sitzen = to sit, to be sitting

With the vowels pretty much as in English, as it turns out :)

There is also the reflexive sich setzen - literally "to seat oneself" - which means "to sit down".

November 2, 2016

mizinamo this isn't quite correct.

sitzen means "to be sitting". ich sitze = I am sitting (as in you are currently seated)

sich setzen means "to sit down". ich setze mich = I am sitting down or setzen Sie sich bitte = please sit down (formal)

setzen by itself can you mean you are setting someone or something into a seated position. z. B. ich setze die Puppe auf dem Stuhl neben mir.

November 17, 2016

I don't think anything I wrote was wrong, though it was perhaps incomplete to leave out sich setzen. I've added that now.

November 17, 2016

*Ich setze die Puppe auf den Stuhl neben mir. Die Puppe sitzt auf dem Stuhl neben mir.

November 17, 2016

Thanks Salomee_e that grammar rule gets me every now and then lol.

November 17, 2016

Maybe you confuse it with the reflexive "sich setzen" = "to sit down"?

November 2, 2016

oh my gosh u have alot of daily streaks

November 10, 2016

1 like ~

October 28, 2016

Great, thanks a lot!

November 5, 2016

Vielen Dank, das ist mir eine sehr große Hilfe!

November 26, 2016

Very good overview, although I've found a minor mistake in the first table at "darstellen", the past form is not "stellte da" but "stellte dar" =)

In the second table it's not "ergiebt" but "ergibt", although the "i" sounds long in this word, it is written without the "e" ;)

And I think, that "schloß" is supposed to be written as "schloss" has already been said. Same goes für "gemußt" -> "gemusst" (table 3). We've had a chance in the German orthography a few years ago which applied to "ss/ß" the following way:

When the preceding vowel is pronounced short, you use "ss" (like German "Fluss" (river)). When the preceding vowel is pronounced long, OR if there are two vowels preceding, you use "ß" (like German "Straße" (street, long vowel) or "fließen" (to flow, two vowels).

Additionally there is a typo in table 3: "frangt an" - this should be written as "fängt an" =)

I hope I was able to help! Wish you all fun in learning German! ;)

December 20, 2016

Thank you so much! :D

October 28, 2016

Thank you so much for the overview! At first glance, I think I see a problem with the third table. Past participle and simple past forms seem to be mixed up.. oder? Kann jemand überprüfen?

October 28, 2016

you're right! editing :)

October 28, 2016


October 28, 2016

Did you edit the last table? I am new to the German language and cannot tell if you have edited the last table or not. I am making flashcards with these words and do not want to get them wrong. Thanks! :)

November 3, 2016

[2016-11-07:] Seems to be alright, except the three words I mentioned below, concerning:

  • schließen (2): not "schloß" - but "schloss" (pronunciation as the castle "das Schloss")

  • müssen (3): not "gemußt" - but "gemusst" (pronunciation as "ge"+"muss"+"t")

  • anfangen (3): not "er/sie/es frangt an" - but "er/sie/es fängt an" (typo)

[edit 2017-02-12:] There are two further mistakes found by (see below):

  • I've found a minor mistake in the first table at "darstellen", the past form is not "stellte da" but "stellte dar"

  • In the second table it's not "ergiebt" but "ergibt", although the "i" sounds long in this word, it is written without the "e"

November 7, 2016

Please correct me if I'm wrong, but aren't "schloß" and "gemußt" the way of spelling from before the spelling reform?

November 10, 2016

As a geman I think it is strange to use "gemußt" oder "schloß" now...

January 1, 2017

That's right.

November 10, 2016

You can listen to the pronunciation here:

October 28, 2016

Great video! Vielen dank!

October 29, 2016

really a very nice video! thanks!

December 24, 2016

Danke! This is amazing.

February 5, 2017

vey good thanks!

February 7, 2017

It it very helpful thank you .

February 25, 2017

typo: "frangt an"

October 29, 2016

Can you say "Ich darf essen"? In Yiddish we can say "Ikh darf/daf essen" (I need to eat/food). Ikh mizz essen means I must eat, and to be allowed to is "meyg"

October 29, 2016

You can say "ich darf essen", but it means "I may/am allowed to eat". Both "need to" and "must" would be translated as "müssen" ("ich muss essen"), they are similar enough in meaning that German simply doesn't make the distinction.

November 1, 2016

Danke schön! It helped me a lot

It would be nice to add the verbs sein/haben to the past participle so you know which one to use when forming the Perfekt tense. I know that if it implies movement you use the verb sein but there are a few exceptions

November 3, 2016

I just read through. "Sein" is used with:

Table 1: gefolgt
Table 2: geblieben, erschienen, gefahren, gefallen, gekommen, gelaufen, gelegen
Table 3: entstanden, gegangen, gesessen (maybe in some regions also with "haben"), gestanden, geworden, gewesen, vergangen

Maybe I missed some...

November 3, 2016

Up here in the north, I would say ich habe (irgendwo) gelegen, ich habe (irgendwo) gesessen, ich habe (irgendwo) gestanden.

(So we don't make a distinction between "I stood" and "I confessed".)

November 7, 2016

Mizinamo is right again since "Hochdeutsch" should be always the right one for learners.

According to "stehen" is conjugated as "Perfektbildung mit »hat«; süddeutsch, österreichisch, schweizerisch: ist".

So "Ich bin (am Bahnhof) gestanden." only spoken in the south. And "Ich habe (am Bahnhof) gestanden." in the north, with DUO & elsewhere.

Analog with "sitzen (habe gesessen)" and "liegen (habe gelegen)".

Not to be confused with "Ich habe (eine Lüge) gestanden." Wich is univeral German. (participle from the infinitive "gestehen" = to confess) There is also no north/south-difference on "setzen (habe gesetzt)" and "legen (habe gelegt)".

November 7, 2016

I'm not sure what your point is when you mention learning Hochdeutsch; it seems to me that "Ich bin (am Bahnhof) gestanden" is perfectly fine Hochdeutsch, though it's not used all across German-speaking regions but mostly in the south. The Duden citation seems to confirm that.

A bit like how "sidewalk" is perfectly acceptable Standard Written English, even if it wouldn't be used in the UK, for example.

Just because I (or other Northerners) don't use it doesn't mean it's not Hochdeutsch - sometimes several alternatives exist in parallel which are all considered acceptable standard written German.

November 7, 2016

You're absolutely right. Please don't misunderstand me and please notice that "Ich bin gestanden." is nothing less than my mother tongue!

I just want to follow DUO-standards, which make in my opinion sence keeping it more simple for learners. And I by myself learn a lot, too.

Maybe I'm wrong if saying "Hochdeutsch" but according to - "die hochdeutsche (a) Sprache", which leads to the conclusion that it's neither "Ober-" nor "Mitteldeutsch" even both are "hochdeutsche (b) Sprachen". I do not fully understand the logic behind by myself. But I guess that's the way it is.

November 7, 2016

Just minor details:

  • schließen (2): not "schloß" - but "schloss" (pronunciation as the castle "das Schloss")

  • müssen (3): not "gemußt" - but "gemusst" (pronunciation as "ge"+"muss"+"t")

  • anfangen (3): not "er/sie/es frangt an" - but "er/sie/es fängt an" (typo) - Thanks mizinamo!

November 5, 2016

er fängt an with umlaut!

(fangt an would be the ihr form.)

November 7, 2016

Hi, this is very useful. Thanks a lot for your efforts. I think the Partzip II for "schaffen" (in the sense of to manage, accomplish) is "geschafft" and not "geschaffen" Maybe a native can confirm.

November 22, 2016

Yes, schaffen "to manage" has past participle geschafft while schaffen "to create" has past participle geschaffen.

(The past tense is also similarly regular for "manage" - schaffte - and strong for "create" - schuf.)

So the conjugation in the table is fine, it's just the English gloss which is wrong -- the sense of schaffen that is in the table is not the "manage" one!

November 22, 2016

New German Club:

Club Code: XCHG3S

Let's push eachother to master this Wonderful Language!

December 30, 2016


January 12, 2017

Hey, wie das neue Lied schrieb ich?

Will You Be My Valentine?

Von: Nordika Goetze | Alter: 9

Deutschland Felsen! Deutschland Felsen! Du bist der beste Freund, den ich je hatte! Möchtest du mein Valentinstagsdate sein? Möchtest du mein Valentinstagsdate sein? Ich würde alles für dich tun, für dich. Ich versuche, Sie zu behandeln das Beste, was ich kann. Ich würde dir nie etwas tun. So, sind Sie mein Valentinsgruß? Wenn du traurig bist, bin ich auch traurig. Wenn du glücklich bist, bin ich auch glücklich. Sie machen mein Herz ticken. Es tickt den ganzen Tag. Bitte, sei mein Valentinsgruß. Sie halten mich auf den Boden, nicht auf die Schwerkraft. Verzeihst du mir, was ich dir schlecht getan habe? Ich flehe dich an!!!!! Möchtest du mein Valentinstagsdate sein? Möchtest du mein Valentinstagsdate sein? Sie helfen, die deutsche Flagge zu unterstützen. Sie sagen Deutschland Felsen !! Das ist wahr. Ich stimme dir zu. Möchtest du mein Valentinstagsdate sein? Möchtest du mein Valentinstagsdate sein? Möchtest du mein Valentinstagsdate sein? Bitte bitte bitte! Möchtest du mein Valentinstagsdate sein?

And in english that is

Hey, like the new song i wrote?

Will You Be My Valentine?

By: Nordika Goetze | Age: 9

Germany Rocks! Germany Rocks! You're the best friend I ever had! Will you be my Valentine? Will you be my Valentine? I would do anything, be anything for you, for you. I try to treat you the best I can. I would never do anything to you, to you. So, will you be my Valentine? If you're sad, I’m sad, too. If you're happy, I’m happy, too. You make my heart tick. It ticks the whole entire day. Please, be my Valentine. You hold me to the ground, not gravity. Do you forgive me, for what I done bad to you? I am begging you!!!!! Will you be my Valentine? Will you be my Valentine? You help support the german flag. You say Germany Rocks!! That is true. I agree with you. Will you be my Valentine? Will you be my Valentine? Will you be my Valentine? Please, please, please! Will you be my Valentine? And in english that is

February 7, 2017

Thank you so much!

October 30, 2016

thank you

October 31, 2016

Danke schön!

November 2, 2016


November 3, 2016

Wow, thanks. This is great.

November 3, 2016


November 4, 2016

Wie macht man diese Sachen?

November 4, 2016

Dear HelpfulDuo Thank you very much for these most helpful grammar rules. They are very important!

November 6, 2016

Thanks for that ! I really need that T;T

November 7, 2016

Deutsche Verben werden allgemein als schwach, stark und gemischt / unregelmäßig kategorisiert, je nachdem, ob sich die Stammform des Wortes in verschiedenen Zeitformen ändert.

1) Schwache Verben ändern ihre Stammvokale nicht in jedem Tempus.

Das vergangene Partizip endet in -t (während viele PP-Formen mit "ge-" wie "gearbeitet" beginnen, mehrere Ausnahmen wie "erklären" existieren)

2) Starke Verben ändern ihre Form in einer oder mehreren Zeitformen.

Das letzte Partizip endet in -en.

3) Gemischte Verben zeigen Elemente von starken und schwachen Verben. Modale Verben mit *.

November 10, 2016

this was very helpful! im glad this site was made. lingots for everyone!

November 10, 2016

thank you

November 12, 2016

thank you so much!

November 12, 2016

Thanks for this it will help my German a lot Danke

November 13, 2016

danke! dies ist sehr nützlich, ich am neu, Und all dies wird von Google Übersetzer kopiert, für mich akzeptiert und danke

November 16, 2016

Don't use google translate, as the result usually isn't really correct, just as the sentence you wrote.

November 18, 2016

Danke, i will remember that, But i wasn't using it for the lessons, only that comment.

November 20, 2016

Wow... more proof that I have more studying to do!! cracks mental knuckles

November 17, 2016

Thanks, very useful

November 20, 2016

A very helpful post! Vielen Dank! :)

November 21, 2016

Vielen dank!

November 28, 2016

Backen (to bake) is two ways I believe. Just remembering from years ago. It might make an interesting addition.

December 2, 2016

Vielen dank!!!

December 8, 2016

this is great

December 8, 2016


December 13, 2016

wow... lingots :)))

December 14, 2016

Thank You. Now I know which verbs to practice.

December 23, 2016


December 27, 2016


December 28, 2016


January 2, 2017

Thank you so much

January 3, 2017

i'm having trouble remembering it ): could anyone help me?

January 5, 2017


January 5, 2017

Thank you for that! It's really helpful.

January 7, 2017

Thank you! This is helpful

January 8, 2017

Vielen Dank!

January 12, 2017

Thank you very much for this, great learning and practice material!

January 12, 2017

ko the tin noi

January 12, 2017

Thank you! Grazie mille! Danke schön!


January 14, 2017


January 17, 2017

This list is very useful! Danke! :)

January 18, 2017

Thanks that was helpful, any other tips ?

January 21, 2017

Thanks i'm learning german and it's my bday

February 1, 2017

good research lol

February 3, 2017

Thanks, this is great !

February 13, 2017

very good

February 17, 2017

When I can have Duolingo for mobile ?

February 17, 2017

hay đó

February 18, 2017

nice thanks

February 20, 2017

Thank you very much for this!!

July 20, 2017

And in future?

October 7, 2017
Learn German in just 5 minutes a day. For free.