https://www.duolingo.com/TseDanylo

Hard, Soft and Mixed [UK. GRAMMAR PORTAL]

TseDanylo
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Вітаю!

Ukrainian is an East Slavic language spoken primarily in Western and Central Ukraine by 40 million people making it the third most spoken Slavic language by number of native speakers in the world!

If there are any terms you do not understand please refer to the grammar glossary

Wait what?

Yes, the title doesn't make sense, but here is what I'll be explaining today.

In Ukrainian, as we know, nouns can be either masculine, feminine or neuter. But something else to note is that nouns can also have types. This is different to gender because with gender there is agreement between individual words. For example.

  • Красна мова - Beautiful language

As we can see, мова is feminine and singular. This means that the adjective, красний, changes to its feminine singular form.

But we word types, this is a part of the word itself. Also, its not just for nouns either! Adjectives and nouns can have types but not pronouns (they're completely irregular). From the adjectives post, we can see that because some adjectives have a different nominative endings, they have different case endings. We have already covered types of adjectives here but today, we will be covering nouns.

Nouns, unlike adjectives, have three types instead of two: Hard, Soft and Mixed. Hence the title!

How do I tell what type a noun is?

Telling what type a noun is a bit complicated but thankfully even though it's rule based, it very regular!

MASCULINE

  • Hard nouns end in б, в, г, ґ, д, з, к, л, м, н, п, с, т, ф, х

  • Soft nouns end in ь preceded by д, дз, з, л, н, с, т or ц

  • Or in й preceded by a vowel
  • Some soft nouns end in р

  • Mixed nouns end in ж, ч, ш or щ

FEMININE

  • Hard nouns end in а preceded by б, в, г, ґ, д, з, к, л, м, н, п, с, т, ф, х

  • Soft nouns end in я preceded by д, дз, з, л, н, с, т or ц

  • Or in я preceded by р or a vowel

  • Mixed nouns end in а preceded by ж, ч, ш or щ

NEUTER

  • Hard nouns end in о preceded by б, в, г, ґ, д, з, к, л, м, н, п, р, с, т, ф, х

  • Soft nouns end in е preceded by л, р or ц

  • Or in є preceded by a vowel
  • Or in я preceded by a double letter

  • Mixed nouns end in е preceded by ж, ч or щ

Note that many loanwords never change e.g. метро, аудіо or медіа

Back To The Grammar Portal

1 year ago

3 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/LICA98
LICA98
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what about words ending in я preceded by ' (like ім'я)

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TseDanylo
TseDanylo
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Ooh, those are a bit awkward. To share a secret, if it ends in я it's more than likely soft but note that ім'я is irregular, e.g. the plural would be імена or the genitive singular, імені. Also note the stress changes drastically too; im'já, imená, ímeni

But for other words e.g. сім'я it's soft. The endings are coming in a later post.

If you want to be able to conjugate any Ukrainian noun or check stress go here: http://lcorp.ulif.org.ua/dictua/

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/hornyakn
hornyakn
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This post i did not understand. Can you write, please, more examples, for each types?

11 months ago
Learn Ukrainian in just 5 minutes a day. For free.

Learn Ukrainian in just 5 minutes a day. For free.