"What does he charge?"
Translation:Il charge quoi ?
It's unclear whether the english sentence "What does he charge?" means "What [electronic item] does he charge?" or "What does he charge [towards]?" The former would translate to "Il branche quoi?" or "What does he plug in?" since you charge electronics by plugging them in. The latter would translate to "Il charge quoi?" or "What does he charge [towards]?"
How could you distinguish without context?
Because French do not make sentences like that. The construct is Qu'est-ce que (=What is it/that/this that) instead of a simple que in the beginning of sentences. Then follows the subject pronoun followed by the verb, and if the subject pronoun start with a vowel the preceding que is elided into qu'.
In phrases with the order verb-pronoun a -t- is added in the middle when the pronoun starts with a vowel sound.