Duolingo seems to be differentiating between "I am good" and "I am well". Although many native English speakers (myself included) use "I am good" to mean the same thing as "I am well", some will say that "I am good" should only be used to say that one is a good person, rather than that one is in good health, or doing okay.
I put "it goes well for me." and it counted it incorrect. I think this entire lesson needs to be redone. It doesn't explain anything and is not flexible on the answers. I am on my fourth time trying this lesson. Last time, I put, "the fish is too salty to me" rather than "the fish is too salty for me," and it counted that wrong too. The german contained no preposition, just "mir," so how are we supposed to know? And the "Der Junge tut mir leid" question was awful too. I translated it as "The boy does pain me," which I understand is incorrect because of the idiomatic "tut mir leid", but some warning and explanation would be helpful...
This might help with the main greetings and they include "tut mir leid" as well.
Es tut mir leid! means "I am sorry!" I thought "Der Junge tut mir leid!" means "I feel sorry for the boy!" Here is the sentence discussion that might help you: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/569229
Yes, they assume you know English for this course. Sometimes the indirect object is "to me" and sometimes it is "for me," so I can see how that would be difficult for you. You will still get there with trial and error, and you can look up expressions in a dictionary like this one: https://dictionary.reverso.net/CollabDict.aspx?lang=en&dirid=201&srcLang=1033&targLang=1031&searchIn=all&word=The%20fish%20is%20too%20salty%20for%20me
So, "too.....for me" is an expression in English.
Prepositions rarely translate well from one language to another. Often the prepositions are different or there is no preposition in one of them.
This is a German expression and the subject is "es", so it is structured as though it says "It goes well for me." The German form uses "mir" an indirect object which often translates as "to me" or "for me", but in English it is more common to say "I am well". or "I am fine."
I think that's accurate; I suppose the slightly less literal but more grammatical English version would be, "For me, it's going well." In that sentence, it's not "me" that's going well; "it" is the thing that's going well, which is why it's "es geht" rather than "ich gehe".
Since "mir" is in the dative case, you can tell it's not the subject of the verb "gehen", because if it was the subject it would be in the nominative case ("ich") instead - just like how in English, you know "me" can't be the thing that's going, because it's not grammatical to say "Me am going", only "I am going".