Conjugations/parts of speech
I'm having a lot of trouble knowing how to answer questions simply because they hand you part of a conjugated verb, without any understanding of how that verb is conjugated, how verbs like it are conjugated, and if it happens to be an exception (which could be often in French). Is there any way this is going to be remedied in the (near) future? Otherwise we'll all be learning french phrase by phrase, instead of learning how to apply rules to the language.
I wish the internet was around when I was learning French in elementary school. about.french.com is a great supplimental resource for your question.
On the website there are quizzes and tutorials just on verb conjugations.
I would start first by learning the regular verbs and learning the conjugation pattern.
Then tackle the super important verbs (they are all irregular) - avoir, être, aller, faire, pouvoir, vouloir. You need to just memorize those.
The great thing about about.french.com is that they break down the verb types and categorize them in a way that you can tackle them category by category.
Also, wordreference.com is by far the best online French dictionary I have ever seen. It includes tons of slang and will conjugate every verb for you in any tense. All you have to do is enter "parles" for example, and in the definition of "parler" there is a conjugate button that will take you to all the conjugations.