E or Este?
(I'm posting this here because the "discuss sentence" button somehow doesn't work for me)
so it says in the notes of Basics 1 that the verb "To Be" for he/she is "Este", but in the second lesson, I noticed they replaced Este for "E", for example "El nu e o fată"
Did I miss something? What's the difference between Este and E?
you can use either, e is just the shortened form of este - unless there are specific rules that i've missed involving it. aside from it mostly being used in speech
el nu este o fată would be acceptable too? waits for clarification
nu can also be shortened to n-
so would el n-e o fată also work? or is that just stupid
Additionally, "nu este" is a bit special since we can also use another variant "nu-i". In your example "el nu-i o fată" would be a more common way of saying it, at least around my region.
Other common phrases: "nu-i de acord" (he disagrees), "nu-i aici" (is not here), "nu-i încântat" (he's not pleased).
The long form of those 3 are:
- nu este de acord;
- nu este aici;
- nu este încântat.
Additionally the same short form can be said about "îi". For example: "nu îi place" can be written "nu-i place". In this case would be incorrect to expand the short form in "nu este place".
Anyway, in spoken Romanian, at least in my experience, you'll hear more often "e" or "-i".
"Este" is preferred in formal talk and it's also a mark of pretentious talk.
Here's a quick check on an article about EU Commission planning to infringe Romania: http://economie.hotnews.ro/stiri-consumator-21612791-oficial-comisia-europeana-declansat-procedura-sanctionarea-romaniei-pentru-legea-care-impune-hipermarketurilor-vand-marfa-romaneasca.htm
Search for the occurrences of " este " (mind the spaces) and " e " (mind the spaces). "Este" is used several times by the journalist, very formally transmitting the important news, while "e" is used by the public in the comments sections and also by a quoted source, while colloquially giving a piece of information.
"E" also appears in on the same page in the title of another article regarding Beyonce and Santana - a less important topic, where formality is not needed.
In school kids are required , in many instances, to use "este" instead of "e", at least in the lower grades. I don't know if it's a formal requirement, or it's enforced by the teachers which wrongfully associate "este" with higher culture. Teachers in Romania tend to be pompous.
In the colloquial speech, "e" and its variant "-i" are usually used, no matter the social background (at least in the region where I live).
The same goes with "acesta/acela" being prefered over "ăsta/ăla" in formal and pompous speech.