"What do you have under the shirt?"
Translation:Τι έχεις κάτω από το πουκάμισο;
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Yes, it's needed.
κάτω, πάνω, πίσω etc. are adverbs, not prepositions; they can't "rule over" a noun, so you have a form a compound preposition by adding από or σε.
In this case ("under"), it's κάτω από.
(Compare e.g. English "because" which can stand alone sometimes, e.g. "because it was raining", but can't stand before a noun as in "*because the rain" -- there, you need a little preposition "of" to turn it into a kind of compound preposition "because of" which can then stand before a noun: "because of the rain". Similarly you can Πηγαίνω κάτω "go down" but you can't then be *κάτω τη στέγη "*down the roof" but have to be κάτω από τη στέγη "under the roof".)
For a native Greek speaker, what is the first image evoked by Τι έχεις κάτω από το πουκάμισο? Do you imagine someone hiding something under the shirt that they are wearing? Or is the shirt separate from the person, e.g. in a pile of clothes on a bed? If i translate Τι έχεις κάτω από το πουκάμισο; literally into French (Qu'est-ce que tu as sous la chemise ?) it's almost certainly the first. But if i translate it literally into my mother tongue, English, it's almost certainly the second. Using the shirt (rather than your shirt) means you aren't wearing it.