Translation:The woman does not drink the tea or the water.
Grammar works differently in different languages. What's mandatory in one might be forbidden in another. What distinguishes a nuance in one might be interchangeable in another.
In English, using "the" here or not marks the difference between a general habit (does not drink water--at all) and a specific situation (does not drink the water--from a particular source).
As to what the distinction is in Romanian, I personally do not know.
Yes. From a Google Book I found, which is "Romanian: An Essential Grammar", by Ramona Gönczöl
Conjunctions link clauses in a complex sentence or words between themselves in a coordinating or subordinating manner.
10.1 Coordinating conjuctions
This type of conjunction links words or clauses of similar value. There are several types:
1. Copulative conjunctions
și ... și ... both ... and ...
nici ... nici ... neither ... nor ...
nu numai ... ci și ... not only ... but also ...
atât ... cât ... both ... and ...
și mie și ţie ne place vinul roșu.
Both you and I like red wine.
Nici Richard nici Mathew nu sunt aroganţi.
Neither Richard nor Matthew is arrogant.
2. Adversative conjunctions
însă but, however, while
iar and, while, whereas
Eu vreau să merg la teatru, însă tu vrei să mergi la film.
I want to go to the theatre, while you want to go to the cinema.
Ți-am explicat de ce, dar tu nu înțelegi.
I told you why, but you don't understand.
3. Disjunctive conjunctions
sau ... sau ... either ... or ...
fie ... fie ... either ... or ...
ori ... ori ... either ... or ...
Sau tu sau el mă enervaţi.
It's either you or he who annoys me.
Mergem la mare sau la munte?
Shall we go to the seaside or to the mountains?
At the literal word level, "a woman" is "o femeie" and "the woman" is "femeia".
At the higher semantics level, saying "The woman does not drink" limits the meaning to one particular woman, whereas saying "A woman does not drink" makes it a more general statement about all women.
The use of the definite and indefinite are not interchangeable.
I presume you're asking about femeia vs femeie? That question has already been addressed on this page.
"The" in Romanian is not an independent word. Definite articles are placed at the end of nouns (or adjectives sometimes), becoming part of that noun. They are called enclitic articles. For example:
femeie = woman
femeia = the woman
bărbat = man
bărbatul = the man
For singular nouns, the general rule for definite articles is:
--> feminine nouns receive the definite article "-a" at the end (fată = girl; fata = the girl). Feminine nouns that already end with an -a before receiving the definite article, add -ua. Ex:
cafea = coffee
cafeaua = the coffee
--> most masculine and neuter nouns receive the definite article "-l" at the end. If they end with a consonant then we add -u as a connecting vowel between the two final consonants (băiat=boy; băiatul = the boy; scaun=chair; scaunul=the chair).
Some masculine nouns that end with "-e" receive "-le" as definite article:
dinte = tooth
dintele = the tooth
A handful of masculine nouns end with "-ă" (about 8 or so in the entire Romanian language). They receive the definite article "-a" at the end. popă=priest (informal)
Here we can have: tata=the father (but only if you're talking about your own father or at most your own father-in-law). So this would be the same as "my father."
OR: tatăl=the father. Tatăl meu = my father. Tatăl tău=your father, etc.
Remember that neuter nouns behave like masculine nouns in the singular and like feminine nouns in the plural.