I don't know here, but in German, for example, you don't say "I am A man", because "a" means literally "one", and you cannot be "two" men at a time. And saying "the" is not correct either, if you are just talking in general. So you should not say an article in the cases with general descriptions and professions. But that is just my attempt to make sense of it, I might be wrong!!
Bărbat makes me think of "bearded", from barba. Man and bearded, hmm... I can see the logic, but is the etymology correct?