Unfortunately, prepositions are so different from a language to another, you cannot find perfect replacements... In general, Dativ case already contains in it the information of somebody who is "receiving" the action, then in many cases the preposition must not be used. To be clearer... I tell a joke(to) you Ich sage dir (Dativ) einen Scherz (Akkusativ).
I am not native, but maybe I can help you, in case send me a message, I will do my best to help, I will study with you!
Perfect explaination. We can tell "meinem" is dativ because of the 'm' on the end. And if we know "meinem" is dativ, the one word alone is all that's needed to communicate "to my". In English the word "my" is no different if we use in dativ, so we have to add the prepostion "to".
Also, I love how German sentences, when translated literally into English, can sometimes sound like "Ye Olde English": I am to my friend committed.
In normal main sentences (Hauptsätze) the non-conjugated part of the verb goes to the end.
I am not German, but I am pretty sure about it. :)
- Ich habe einen Apfel gegessen
- Ich werde Dich morgen anrufen
- Der Hauptsatz ist mit dem Nebensatz verbunden
(I hope I didn't make any mistake in the examples!!!)
Here is a good link on word order in German. You need to look at the section on placement of predicate adjectives and dative nouns in the predicate (para. A.I.e & f). In brief, the "verbal idea" they refer to is in this exercise verpflichet sein in which case the adjective goes at the end, whereas the dative noun goes shortly after the verb rather than at the end.