Fun fact: the Romanian word for orange "o portocală" originates from the land they got them from "Portugal" (: (via Greek i suppose)
but portocaliu also means orange... so we romanians didn't know the colour untill then i suppose hahaha
It is the same in English - the word for the colour was taken from the fruit. Before that, things that are orange were described as yellow or red.
I think the name for the color came later as a derivation from the object, that was named after the country. Orange (the fruit) is named after the country they got it from also in Dutch, Russian, ... but instead of Portugal, they have China.