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Các liên từ trong tiếng Anh

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Các bạn đền sau hãy học bài và làm thử bài tập bên dưới, sau đóđối chiếu với đáp án

Hôm nay chúng ta sẽ cùng nhau tìm hiểu về liên từ theo nguyện vọng của lớp trưởng đương nhiệm huynhthibong. Liên từ là gì và cách sử dụng chúng ra sao?


I/ ĐỊNH NGHĨA

Liên từ trong tiếng Anh là từ dùng để nối hai phần, hai mệnh đề trong một câu.


II/ PHÂN LOẠI

Gồm 3 loại:

1) LIÊN TỪ KẾT HỢP (coordinating conjunctions)

Dùng loại liên từ này để nối những các từ loại hoặc cụm từ/ nhóm từ cùng một loại, hoặc những mệnh đề ngang hàng, không phụ thuộc lẫn nhau (tính từ với tính từ, danh từ với danh từ ...). Những mệnh đề này khi đứng một mình vẫn tạo thành một câu có nghĩa.

Gồm có: for, and, nor, but, or, yet

Ví dụ:

She is a good and loyal wife.

Use your credit cards frequently and you'll soon find yourself deep in debt.

He is intelligent but very lazy.

She says she does not love me, yet I still love her.

We have to work hard, or we will fail the exam.

He will surely succeed, for (because) he works hard.

That is not what I meant to say, nor should you interpret my statement as an admission of guilt.

Chú ý: khi dùng liên từ kết hợp để nối hai mệnh đề, chúng ta thêm dấu phẩy sau mệnh đề thứ nhất trước liên từ trừ trường hợp câu quá ngắn.

Ulysses wants to play for UConn, but he has had trouble meeting the academic requirements.

2) TƯƠNG LIÊN TỪ (correlative conjunctions)

Một vài liên từ thường kết hợp với các từ khác để tạo thành các tương liên từ. Chúng thường được sử dụng theo cặp để liên kết các cụm từ hoặc mệnh đề có chức năng tương đương nhau về mặt ngữ pháp.

Gồm có:

  • both . . . and… --> (vừa….vừa…)

  • not only . . . but also… --> (không chỉ…mà còn…)

  • not . . . but --> (hoặc ..hoặc..)

  • either . . . or --> (hoặc ..hoặc..)

  • neither . . . nor --> (không….cũng không…)

  • whether . . . or --> (vừa mới….thì…)

  • as . . . as --> (vừa mới….thì…)

  • no sooner…. than… --> (vừa mới….thì…)

Ví dụ:

They learn both English and French.

He drinks neither wine nor beer.

I like playing not only tennis but also football.

I don't have either books or notebooks.

I can't make up my mind whether to buy some new summer clothes now or wait until the prices go down.

3) LIÊN TỪ PHỤ THUỘC (subordinating conjunctions)

Loại liên từ phụ thuộc nối kết các nhóm từ, cụm từ hoặc mệnh đề có chức năng khác nhau - mệnh đề phụ với mệnh đề chính trong câu.

Ví dụ như các liên từ sau và nghĩa kèm theo của chúng:

As

  • Bởi vì:

    • As he is my friend, I will help him.
  • Khi:

    • We watched as the plane took off.

After: sau khi

  • After the train left, we went home.

Although/ though: mặc dù

  • Although it was after midnight, we did not feel tired.

Before: trước khi

  • I arrived before the stores were open.

Because: bởi vì

  • We had to wait, because we arrived early.

For: bởi vì

  • He is happy, for he enjoys his work.

If: nếu, giá như

  • If she is here, we will see her.

Lest: sợ rằng

  • I watched closely, lest he make a mistake.

Chú ý: sử dụng động từ nguyên thể trong mệnh đề “lest”

Providing/ provided: miễn là

  • All will be well, providing you are careful.

Since

  • Từ khi:

I have been here since the sun rose.

  • Bởi vì:

Since you are here, you can help me.

So/ so that

  • Bởi vậy:

It was raining, so we did not go out.

  • Để (= in order that):

I am saving money so I can buy a bicycle.

Supposing (= if)

  • Supposing that happens, what will you do?

Than: so với

  • He is taller than you are.

Unless: trừ khi

  • Unless he helps us, we cannot succeed.

Until/ till: cho đến khi

  • I will wait untiI hear from you.

Whereas

  • Bởi vì:

Whereas this is a public building, it is open to everyone.

  • Trong khi (ngược lại):

He is short, whereas you are tall.

Whether: hay không

  • I do not know whether she was invited.

While

  • Khi:

While it was snowing, we played cards.

  • Trong khi (ngược lại):

He is rich, while his friend is poor.

  • Mặc dù:

While I am not an expert, I will do my best.

As if = in a similar way

  • She talks as if she knows everything.

As long as

  • Nếu:

As long as we cooperate, we can finish the work easily.

  • Khi:

He has lived there as long as I have known him.

As soon as: ngay khi

  • Write to me as soon as you can.

As though = in a similar way

  • It looks as though there will be a storm.

In case: Trong trường hợp...

  • Take a sweater in case it gets cold.

Or else = otherwise: nếu không thì

  • Please be careful, or else you may have an accident.

So as to = in order to: để

  • I hurried so as to be on time.

III/ PHÂN BIỆT CÁCH SỬ DỤNG MỘT SỐ LIÊN TỪ VÀ GIỚI TỪ CÓ CÙNG NGHĨA

Imgur

Sự khác biệt giữa chúng là:

  • liên từ + một mệnh đề

  • trong khi đó giới từ + một danh từ hoặc ngữ danh từ

Ví dụ:

They were upset because of the delay. --> câu chứa giới từ

They were upset because they were delayed. --> câu chứa liên từ

Despite the rain, we enjoyed ourselves. --> câu chứa giới từ

Although it rained, we enjoyed ourselves. --> câu chứa liên từ

We stayed indoors during the storm. --> câu chứa giới từ

We stayed indoors while the storm raged. --> câu chứa liên từ


Bài tập

BT1 - Vừa

Điền vào chỗ trống với các từ sau: although, and, because, but, or, since, so, unless, until, when, before, for fear that, so that/so....that, if, than, wherever.

1) Things were different ………….. I was young.

2) I do it …………… I like it.

3) Let us wait here ………….. the rain stops.

4) You cannot be a lawyer ………..you have a law degree.

5) She has not called …………… she left last week.

6) I saw him leaving an hour ……………. two ago.

7) This is an expensive ………… very useful book.

8) We were getting tired ………….. we stopped for a rest.

9) He was angry …………. he heard when happened.

10) Walk quickly …………. you will be late.

11) He had to retire …………… of ill health.

12) We will go swimming next Sunday ………….. it's raining.

13) I heard a noise ………… I turned the light on.

14) Would you like a coffee …………… tea?

15) I’ll come and see you ……........ I leave for Moscow.

16) He will tell you ……….. you get home.

17) I can’t express my opinion ……… I know the fact.

18) We started very early ……...... we should miss the train.

19) He will stay here ……..... you come.

20) ……….. he tried hard, he wasn’t successful.

21) He worked late last night …….. he might be free to go away tomorrow.

22) The room is …...... small …...... we can’t all get in.

23) ……. you had left earlier, you would have caught the train.

24) The road seems longer ……..... I thought.

25) ……… it rained hard, we played the match.

26) ……….. you may go, he won’t forget you.


BT2 - Dễ

**Chọn câu đúng:

1) .............. she was very tired, she helped her brother with his homework.

A. Because

B. whether

C. Although

D. so

2) It’s raining hard, ............... we can’t go to the beach.

A. or

B. but

C. so

D. though

3) Nam was absent from class yesterday .............. he felt sick.

A. so

B. because

C. although

D. but

4) Tom has a computer, .............. he doesn’t use it.

A. or

B. as

C. because

D. but

5) The boy can’t reach the shelf ........... he’s not tall enough.

A. because

B. although

C. even though

D. and

6) The film was boring, ............. we went home.

A. so

B. when

C. but

D. if

7) The girl bought the shoes ............ they are very expensive.

A. but

B. if

C. so

D. although

8) He used to smoke a lot ............ now he doesn’t smoke any more.

A. still

B. therefore

C. but

D. as

9) She couldn’t unlock it ............. she had the wrong key.

A. while

B. but

C. though

D. because

10) ................. it rained, the boys played football.

A. Even

B. Even though

C. However

D. In spite of


Đáp án

BT1 - Vừa

1) Things were different when I was young.

2) I do it because/and I like it.

3) Let us wait here until the rain stops.

4) You cannot be a lawyer unless/although/until you have a law degree.

5) She has not called since she left last week.

6) I saw him leaving an hour or two ago.

7) This is an expensive but/and very useful book.

8) We were getting tired so we stopped for a rest.

9) He was angry when he heard when happened.

10) Walk quickly unless/or/or else you will be late.

11) He had to retire because of ill health.

12) We will go swimming next Sunday unless/although it's raining.

13) I heard a noise so/when I turned the light on.

14) Would you like a coffee or tea?

15) I’ll come and see you before/when/if I leave for Moscow.

16) He will tell you when/after you get home.

17) I can’t express my opinion unless/although I know the fact.

18) We started very early for fear that we should miss the train.

19) He will stay here because/when/until/since/so that/if you come.

20) Although he tried hard, he wasn’t successful.

21) He worked late last night so/so that he might be free to go away tomorrow.

22) The room is so small so that we can’t all get in.

23) If you had left earlier, you would have caught the train.

24) The road seems longer than I thought.

25) Although it rained hard, we played the match.

26) Wherever you may go, he won’t forget you.

BT2:

1) C

2) C

3) B

4) D

5) A

6) A

7) D

8) C

9) D

10) B


Điểm số hiện tại:

Cuối cùng cũng đã có bạn đạt điểm tuyệt đối =]]

Rất nhiều điểm 10 ở BT2

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