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Such limited exposure to your own language! So you never hear "think on it". It's a small stretch to imagine a valid scenario for "he thinks on it", and from there to "he thinks on the boys".
Just because you lack the imagination or memory does not mean it is invalid, and in the right context you might not even notice it as odd or archaic.
I guess and was correct with, "He thinks about the boys." I agree "He thinks of the boys" sounds normal in english. But "He thinks on the boys" is odd but i understand the meaning. I will try to remember all three and focus on the Portuguese. I hope this is the right way to say "to think about someone" in Portuguese.
Prepositions are tricky, especially when learning in a second language. From what I've seen above, "pensar em" is correct. And according to Google Translate, so is "pensar sobre". So it appears there is more than one way to say it. Can a native speaker confirm this and explain if there is any difference between them?
There's a slight difference. First of all, the default translation (he thinks of the boys) doesn't seem right to me. It should be "He thinks about the boys", or "He thinks on the boys" which is a more literal translation. This means he is actively thinking about the boys, that they are on his thoughts.
"Ele pensa dos meninos" does not exist in Portuguese, but "O que ele pensa dos meninos?" (What does he think of the boys?) exists. But in this case, he's not thinking about the boys, he's being asked his opinion about them.
"nos" in this case is a contraction of "em + os". The preposition "em" can mean a lot of things, including "in", "on", "of" and "about". In some cases, we might not know exactly what it means without further context. For example, if the sentence were "Ela pensa na cozinha" we wouldn't know exactly if it meant "She thinks in the kitchen" or "She thinks about the kitchen".