Japanese Lesson: Informal/Neutral infinitive+past tense Verbs
I had already made a lesson in which I explained the ます verbs and their past tense. They're used best with unfamiliar people or people of a higher status than you, but when meeting someone your own age or younger, sometimes it is not necessary to speak that formally. This is where the informal/neutral tense comes in.
All Japanese verbs have two forms. For example, the verb 食べるtaberu means 'to eat'. The ます version of this verb is 食べます tabemasu. They both mean the same thing, but depending on the people you are with it means a lot in the way you speak (however there might be a slightly longer leash since you're a foreigner).
I will list some of the neutral forms of verbs along with their past tense in a style similar to my ます verb lesson, and will I also include an example sentence to show how they are used.
食べる taberu- To eat
食べた tabeta- Ate
猫は魚を食べる neko wa sakana o taberu- The cat eats fish
友達とそばを食べた tomodachi to soba o tabeta: I ate soba (a type of noodle) with my friend.
飲む nomu- To drink
飲んだ nonda- Drank
お父さんはビールを飲む otōsan wa bīru o nomu- My dad drinks beer
一緒に飲んだ issho ni nonda- (We) drank together
買う kau- To buy/purchase
買った katta- Bought
子供はコンビニでアイスを買う kodomo wa konbini de aisu o kau- The child buys ice cream in the convenience store
これは東京で買った帽子だ kore wa tōkyō de katta bōshi da- This is the hat that I bought in Tokyo
行く iku - To go
行った itta- Went
私は浅草に行く watashi wa asakusa ni iku- I go to Asakusa
友達はドイツに行った tomodachi wa doitsu ni itta- My friend went to Germany
This is just a few of the verbs, and I hope that they gave you an idea as to how they worked. If they didn't (and I'm sure they didn't, they're kind of difficult to get used to sometimes), don't worry. I'm going to explain conjugation next.
Now, for verbs that end with く ku, you simply get rid of the く and add いた ita
Example: 聞くkikuーTo listen 聞いたkiita- Listened
For verbs ending in ぐ gu, replace ぐ with いだ ida
Example: 泳ぐ oyogu- To swim 泳いだoyoida- Swam
For verbs that end with うu, つtsu, and るru, you replace those with った tta
Example: 歌う utau- To sing 歌った
For verbs that end with ぬnu、ぶbu、and むmu, you replace them with んだ nda
Example: 飲むnomu- To drink 飲んだNonda- Drank
For verbs ending with す su, replace it with した shita
Example: 話すhanasu- To speak 離したhanashita- Spoke
For verbs that end in る ru, replace it with たta
Example: 見る miru- To see 見たmita- Saw
And finally, the irregulars. The most common are 来るkuru-To come and するsuru- To do. The past tense for 来る is not 'くった' kutta, but instead it is 来たkita- Came. The past tense for する is した-Did
I went a bit more in depth in this lesson, so I hope people find it useful. Again, as usual, native speakers please correct my mistakes, and これから頑張ってください
List of Other Lessons