Toronto Math Forum
MAT2442014F => MAT244 MathTests => Quiz 1 => Topic started by: Victor Ivrii on September 29, 2014, 02:21:44 AM

Please post problem and solution

2.6 p. 101, #22
Show that the given equation is not exact but becomes exact when multiplied by the given integrating factor. Then solve the equation.
\begin{equation}
(x + 2) \sin y + (x \cos y)y' = 0\label{A}\\
Î¼(x, y) = xe^x
\end{equation}
Let $M(x,y) = (x+2)\sin y$, $N(x,y) = x(\cos y)$. Then $M_y(x,y) = (x+2)\cos y$, $N_x(x,y) = \cos y$.
Since $M_y(x,y) \ne N_x(x,y)$, then equation (\ref{A}) is not exact. Multiply the given integrating factor to Equation (\ref{A}):
\begin{equation}
xe^x(x + 2) \sin y + xe^x(x \cos y)y' = 0\label{B}\\
\end{equation}
Now $M(x,y) = xe^x(x+2)\sin y$, $N(x,y) = x^2e^x(\cos y)$
Then $M_y(x,y) = xe^x(x+2)\cos y$, $N_x(x,y) = 2xe^x\cos y + x^2e^x cos y = xe^x(x+2) \cos y$. Since $M_y(x,y) = N_x(x,y)$, then Equation (\ref{B}) is exact.
There is a $\Psi(x, y)$ such that:
\begin{gather}
\Psi _x(x, y) = M(x,y) = xe^x(x+2)\sin y\label{C}\\
\Psi _y (x, y) = N(x,y) = x^2e^x(\cos y)\label{D}
\end{gather}
Integrate Equation (\ref{C}) and we get $\Psi (x, y) =\sin(y)x^2e^x + g(y)$.
Now differentiate it to get $\Psi_y (x, y) = \cos(y)x^2e^x + g'(y) = \cos(y)x^2e^x \implies g'(y) = 0 \implies g(y) = C$
Therefore, the solution is:
\begin{equation}
x^2e^x\sin(y) = C
\end{equation}
Observe I write \cos, \sin , \ln etc, to keep them upright rather than italic and have a proper spacing; in $\LaTeX$ they are called operatorsV.I.