"I only like cats."
Translation:J'aime uniquement les chats.
Remember: the object of verbs of likes and dislikes are general, always.
- j'aime le vin, les chats...
With other verbs, try to add "in general" after the English plural noun. If the sentence still works with no change in meaning, use "le, la, les".
Alternatively, put the sentence in singular: if you get "a/one", remember that the plural of "un/une" is "des", the plural indefinite article that English does hot have.
You use "les" when talking in general about "all kinds" of the noun. You use "des" when talking about an indefinite number of the noun.
For this question, you use "les" since you're talking about all cats in general.
In your previous question, your answer could be right or wrong, depending on the context. For example, if you were asked "Êtes-vous républicain ?" ("Are you a republican?") then it would be correct to say, "Oui, j'ai les principes." ("Yes, I have the [republican] principles.") I.e., you have all the principles in question, in general.
But if you were asked "Êtes-vous un homme politique ?" ("Are you a political man?") then it would be correct to say "Oui, j'ai des principes." ("Yes, I have some [political] principles"), since you're not talking about any specific breed of principles.
Let me know if this makes sense. My French isn't perfect, but, believe me when you read enough French you get an intuitive feel between "des" and "les," even if it's not so easy to express the difference.
One way to be clear about the use of les/des is to be really clear about what you are saying in English. English speakers typically leave it up to the reader/listener to figure out what is meant when it comes to articles. French puts more obligation on the speaker/writer to specify what is intended.
Le/la/les = the particular ..those ones right there
du/de la/des = some, many but not all
le/la/les = all examples, the idea of the examples, all the examples in the world.
If you think the statement I have principles should be taken to mean...I have those particular principles that we are talking about or understand that we are referring to, then use les.
If you think I have principles should be taken to mean ...I have all the principles in the world, all known examples of principles, the idea of principles, then use les.
If you think I have principles should be taken to mean .... I have some principles some of which are relevant to this discussion, then use des.
Of course, English speakers like to drop the article and let the audience figure it out. Because of that it isn't always evident which use should be offered when translating. That means you have to sometimes try to figure it out.
Use the context to tell which is the correct choice. You wouldn't be saying you want all the apples in the world when speaking the English sentence ...I want apples. So les general doesn't work. You wouldn't be saying I want the apples right there if there were no apples right there or understood to be the subject of the conversation, so les particular doesn't work. Without any context you have to assume that the English statement means you want some apples and translate accordingly. Des
Students tend to look at the sentence and think what could this possibly mean in French instead of what does it actually mean in English. The French choices are always pretty straightforward if you are really sure about the English.
As I stated, I do not have problems figuring out les and des in french. I have problems deciding whether to translate principles to des principes or les principes, and Duo said I was wrong to use des. So I appreciate you answering, but both of you basically say the same things I'm saying.
Generalities are built with definite article le/la/les.
To remember it for next time you get a generality, maybe you could try to learn this by heart: "men are stronger than women" = "les hommes sont plus forts que les femmes".
When it comes to "de", it is a preposition used in a wide variety of constructions that I think you can't all swallow at this point. So, if you have a specific question on a sentence with "de", I will be pleased to answer to you.
Your sentence is correctly built, with only one point wrong: "pain" should be singular because remember that the singular is "je mange du pain" -> je ne mange pas de pain". Again a partitive for an uncountable object.
"je ne veux jamais manger d'animaux" would be plural (countable)
I guess if I think of uniquement as exclusively rather than only it will be clear why des doesn't work in this example. In English, one could say I like only some cats but it would be very strange to say I like exclusively some cats.
Besides, I remember you saying appreciation verbs cannot be matched with du/des. This example neatly shows what can happen if you try to.
"seulement" and "uniquement" or "exclusivement" are not interchangeable in French either. I would have used "je n'aime que les chats" which is yet another way of saying the same as "I only like cats", and less committing than "uniquement" (vs what? living beings? humans? animals? dogs? "chattes"?). So context will tell, in English and in French as well, I think.
This example neatly shows what can happen if you try to: does it? where?
If you say, "j'aime des chats" you will not be understood as liking all cats in general.
If you want to isolate specific cats, you have to change something: "j'aime certains chats mais pas tous" (I like some cats but not all). In that case, as you can see "des" will not do the job.
"Only" is a nasty word in the English language, being an adjective, adverb, and conjunction. The rule is that "only" modifies the word or phrase that directly follows it.
So "I only like cats" and "I like only cats" have different meanings. The former means "I don't do anything else but like cats" and the second one means "I like cats and I don't like anything else."
So how would these distinct meanings be represented in French? Does "J'aime uniquement les chats" express the former or the latter meaning?
I only like cats = je n'ai d'amour que pour les chats ; les chats sont mon seul amour ; je n'aime rien que les chats
I like only cats = je n'aime que les chats ; j'aime seulement/uniquement/exclusivement les chats ; ce sont les chats que j'aime.
However, the latter can also mean the former and vice-versa if the context were about pets or in a comparison with dogs.
Generalities in French are not quite the same as in English:
- verbs expressing likes and dislikes automatically prompt a generality: J'aime les fruits = I like fruit (in general, all fruit, any fruit)
- je mange uniquement des fruits is not a generality, since you could add "some" in front of fruit without changing the meaning of the sentence.
Therefore, in the absence of an article in English:
- if you can add "in general" to the sentence with no change to the whole meaning, go for a definite article in French: le, la, l' and plural les as well.
- if you can add "some" in front of the singular (uncountable) noun, with no change to the whole meaning, go for a partitive article in French: du, de la, de l'