Cases in Polish
I'm a little overhelmed with the cases
I don't really know how it works
What kind of cases are used in polish? When do we use one rather an other? How could i know the termination of a word with the case and the gender?
Thank you :)
So grammatical casing is something that a lot of languages have. English has them however we just never at all pay attention to them because we hardly ever distinguish them.
Polish has seven cases, which definitely does seem to be a lot. However if you understand general grammar a bit then it's not too bad. So I'll explain a bit of how each functions as simply as possible which means I might gloss over exceptions to rules or further explanation:
Nominative - The nominative case, or mianownik marks the subject of a sentence. In an active sentence, it's the noun that is doing the action ( "The boy saw her.") In the passive it is the noun receiving the action ( "The girl was seen.") So think of the nominative as the subject.
Accusative - The accusative case, or biernik marks the direct object of the sentence. The direct object is the noun that acted upon by the verb ( "The dogs like the nurses." "I gave my grandmother a necklace." )
Dative - The dative case, or celownik marks (generally) the indirect object of a sentence. The indirect object is the noun that receiving the action of the verb, the recipient of a direct object ( "He will send us a postcard.")
Genitive - The genitive case, or dopełniacz marks possession of a noun. In English we do have some conjugation with the possessive pronouns ( "my, your, their" etc.) but we also do this by using the word "of" ( "The land belongs the the people of the island." ) or by adding an 's (generally) to the end of a word ( "Everyone loves Megan's new car.")
Vocative - The vocative case, or wołacz marks an identification of a person, thing, any noun by an address. It's used when the person (or thing) being addressed is used within the sentence ( "Nadine, I think I got some of your mail by accident.") It can also be if you just using it to call to someone ( "Hey dad! Mom is home!")
Locative - The locative case or miejscownik marks a location. It can be any location as small as a room in the house ("If you need me, I'll be in the kitchen." ) to as big as continents ("We're getting a lot of rain here in Europe." )
Instrumentative - The instrumentative/instrumental case or narzędnik marks a noun that is the means by which an action is completed. It's usually followed by the "by" in English and can be a physical thing ( "He made that sand castle by hand." ) or an abstract concept ( "I survived the fistfight by sheer self-determination." ) It can also be used to state who made something as well in passive forms of sentences ( "The cake was made by mom." )
Hopefully that helps a little bit into how they're used. There is a lot more to all of them but this is the basic layout of how these cases work. For the most part you're not gonna use all of them, i'd say that the first four are gonna be way more common than the last three of them so it's not like you're going to always be constantly juggling them in sentences.
"Everyone loves Megan's new car"- haha, I'm Megan and just got a car :) Thanks for the amazing post!