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Would and would have

I am really confused as to how to use the proper Polish words for 'would' and 'would have' Sometimes, when I see a sentence such as 'I would do,' I'd translate it as 'robiłabym.' But sometimes I see the same sentence as 'zrobiłabym.' I thought the last sentence meant 'I would have done.' Could anyone give me a clear explanation, please. I will even give a couple of examples with the structure, so someone could clarify it.

  1. I would have gone shopping if you hadn't stopped me/ or prevented me

  2. If you had apologized, he would have forgiven you

  3. I wouldn't do that if I were you

  4. It would surely make him happy if you gave him a present

  5. This would never have happened if you hadn't gotten involved

  6. If I hadn't defended you, you would have died

  7. It probably would have been best if you stayed away

  8. Had it not been for your courage, we would have lost the battle

  9. If he really loved you, he would have said it

I know these sentences are random, but, as I said at the top, these are just examples, and I would like to know how to use 'would' and 'would have' in Polish correctly.

1 year ago

4 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/strzyga956
strzyga956
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The structure of those kind of sentences is very different in polish then it is in english, you don't just put a word would/would have, but instead you change the verb into subjunctive. you have it all explained here: http://wa.amu.edu.pl/plm_old/2007/files/Presentations/PLM2007_Presentation_Tomaszewicz.pdf as for your examples 1: I would have gone shopping if you hadn't stopped me/ or prevented me - Poszedłbym na zakupy gdybyś mnie nie powstrzymał. 2. If you had apologized, he would have forgiven you - gdybyś przeprosił wybaczyłby ci. 3.I wouldn't do that if I were you - Nie robiłbym tego na twoim miejscu 4. It would surely make him happy if you gave him a present - na pewno byłby szczęśliwy gdybyś dał mu prezent 5. This would never have happened if you hadn't gotten involved - to nigdy by się nie stało gdybyś się w to nie zaangażował 6. If I hadn't defended you, you would have died - gdybym cię nie obronił, zginąłbyś 7. It probably would have been best if you stayed away - prawdopodobnie byłoby najlepiej gdybyś trzymał się z daleka. 8.Had it not been for your courage, we would have lost the battle - gdyby nie twoja odwaga przegralibyśmy bitwę. 9. If he really loved you, he would have said it - gdyby on naprawdę cię kochał, powiedziałby to

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/LICA98
LICA98
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I like how in Polish (and Russian) there's no difference between would and would have, they are both expressed by "by"

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/yuioyuio
yuioyuio
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I thought about it for a while (I'm a Polish native speaker) and I've come up with this: In Polish, there is definitely no distinction between 2nd conditional (would) and 3rd conditional (would have). You just know from the context. Chosing between perfect and imperfect aspect is done the same way as in normal sentences and has to do with whether we're talking about a one time situation or a state / repetitve actions. Look at these examples, for each case there are two regular sentences, one about the past and one about the present, and then the conditional, works both for the past and the present:

  1. Imperfect

Mam mnóstwo wolnego czasu, więc czytam dużo książek.
I have loads of free time, so I read a lot of books.

Kiedy byłam w szkole, czytałam dużo książek.
When I was at school, I would read lots of books.

Gdybym miała czas, czytałabym dużo książek.
If I had the time, I would read lots of books. OR
If I had had the time, I would have been reading lots of books.

  1. Perfect

W te wakacje przeczytam dwie książki.
These holidays, I'm going to read two books.

W zeszłe wakacje przeczytałam dwie książki.
Last summer, I read two books.

Gdybym musiała, przeczytałabym te dwie książki.
If I had to, I would read those two books. OR
If I had had to, I would have read those two books.

Another thing is that when giving advice, you use perfect aspect in positive sentences and imperfect in the negative ones:

Na twoim miejscu, zrobiłabym to.
If I were you, I would do it.

Na twoim miejscu, nie robiłabym tego.
If I were you, I wouldn't do it.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Elvus
Elvus
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It's worth to add that the distinction between 2nd and 3rd conditional in Polish actually exists but fell out of use and might be considered archaic by many. Some people just forget or even aren't aware of the existence of this form. However, it's still possible to come across people who use it, but rather in writing than in speaking, not to mention colloquial speaking. Nevertheless, it's still correct.

It should look this way:

If he really loved you, he would say it. = Gdyby naprawdę cię kochał, powiedziałby to.

If he really loved you, he would have say it. = Gdyby naprawdę cię kochał, byłby to powiedział.

1 year ago