Translation:The oven has a temperature of one hundred and seventy five.
I'd say it's fairly common in English to omit adding "degrees" onto the sentence so the literal translation still makes sense to me, as degrees [with or without the scale] is sometimes implied.
However, I can not say for certain that in other languages the usage/non-usage of degrees (or "de grade"/the foreign equivalant translation) is necessary.
This is a perfectly valid English sentence. Yes, we say that people have temperatures, usually to indicate a fever.
However, objects can have temperatures as well. It really only makes sense when something can hold a temperature and not when it is the temperature of something. Although, in reverse it does not work. Let's see if I can use some examples.
For an oven, in English, we can say (and all of the examples could have "degrees C/F/K/Ra" after "175": Ex. 1- "The oven has a temperature of 175" has here indicates a possessive property. Ex. 2 - "The oven temperature is 175" is here indicates a state of being. This can be interpreted in two ways (at least the way it is written). (1) The temperature inside the oven is 175 and most people would understand it this way. (2) The temperature of the actual oven, that is if you were to grab the handle or touch the side, is 175. Ex.3 - "The oven is 175" Same as above, but with out a bit more detail one could interpret this as the age of the oven is 175.
These are some variations. A lot depends on context as well, perhaps even the order of words. Some more examples, we'd say Ex. 4 - "The temperature of the oven is 175" However, we would not say Ex. 5 - "The temperature of the oven has 175"
In Ex. 2 above it is highly unlikely someone would understand you as saying that the physical property of the oven, and not the internal temperature, is 175 since people inherently know that the temperature of an object is the same as the ambient temperature. There may be cases when this isn't true but it would be understood since it would likely be spoken of in context.
This usage does not work well with some objects. As I try to think of examples this might be something that just comes with being a native English speaker. And again, it seems as if the wording and the usage of prepositions (for example) can make the sentence work or not work.
For some context, let's say you have a dysfunctional television set that is overheating. It would not make sense to say Ex. 6 - "The TV has a temperature 175" Instead we would say Ex.7 "The TV is [at a temperature of] 175".