"It is made by women."
Translation:C'est fait par des femmes.
You have to compare active and passive actions:
active: (some) women make it = des femmes font cela/ça (or "des femmes le/la font")
passive: it is made by women = cela/ça/c'est fait par des femmes: in both languages, "made/fait" is a past participle working as an adjective with verb "être/be".
Since "fait" is functioning as an adjective, it can take an agreement, depending on the subject. In this sentence, cela/ça/c' are all masculine by default, so "fait" is masculine singular.
But if the subject were feminine or plural, you would see the agreement:
- cette chose est faite par des femmes (fem sing)
- ces objets sont faits par des femmes (masc plur)
- ces choses sont faites par des femmes (fem plur)
One more grammar point. Is it "faire" that requires "par" in this construction? In the sentence "il est aimé de tous" would the substitution "Il est aimé des femmes" be acceptable (without "par")? Or is it the partitive that makes "par" obligatory? Or is it "aimer" that can take an unusual construction?
"par" is prompted by the passive form of the verb/sentence (active form: women do it/des femmes le font).
All action verbs would work the same: il est mangé/bu/trouvé/demandé/chanté/dansé... par des femmes
The dual form "il est aimé/respecté/détesté de/par tous" is specific to verbs of like/dislike.
Understood. Sorry if I seem obtuse, but my question is about the "des" liason. Does "de" belong to the verb (détesté de) or the noun (des femmes) or does it have a dual function in this construction? "Détesté de des femmes" looks improbable; "détesté des femmes" looks incomplete, unless "de" goes both ways. The correct form seems "détesté par des femmes." Is my question clear now?