does it have the same meaning like "Tu scazi două numerele" (if it is possible to say like that at all) ?
It is not valid.
And what about "doua numere"?
That's the equivalent of you subtract two numbers (like any two numbers) instead of the two numbers (the ones that might be referenced given the context).
I do not understand "cele" here...
”Tu scazi cele două numere” means ”You subtract those two numbers.”
What about "Tu scazi amândoi numere"?
First, your sentence should be "Tu scazi amândouă numere", as "numere" is neutral.
Second, amândoi/amândouă means "both", not "two" and therefore can't be used in a translation of this sentence.
What does tue "cele" bit do?
”Tu scazi cele două numere” means ”You subtract those two numbers.” The version without ”cele” should be accepted. (I am a native speaker.)
No, it should not. I am a native speaker too.
”Tu scazi cele două numere” can be translated as both ”You subtract those two numbers.” and ”You subtract the two numbers.”.
Because it's "the two" with emphasis on two, something like this I am not native Romanian. Because two is not a noun.