wegen requires dative or genitive, and
ihm is dative, but
ihn is accusative.
That is "more" correct. However, colloquially many people use dative. Although I learnt genitive, I'd slipped into using dative (unintentionally) within my first year of living in Germany.
It's a little similar to how people might say "to whom" or "to who". It's the same sort of "that sounds wrong" if you're used to hearing "to whom".
No. In German there are just 4 cases. In Finnish there are 15 cases, in Hungarian they even do not agree with the number of cases (5-40!), in Serbian they have 7 cases and 3 numera (singular, paukal and plural)! By the way english has cases too: I my me; ; you your you ; he his him ; she her her ; it its it ; we our us ; you your you ; they their them ; Just three, but as a not native speaker you have to learn them. Why for example do you say "me too" instead of "I too"? (context: the other person said "I do judo.")
A small correction: "my" is not a case, just like "mein" is not a case in German. It's a posessive pronoun. Argualbly "mine" can be cosidered a case: "He is a friend of mine", but definitly not "my".
Also, you example with "me too" does not really illustrate your point. This is spoken English, not formally correct English. Formally, it would have to be "I" (it's the subject, not an object here!) and a grammatically correct response to "I do judo." would be "So do I" or "I do too". ("I too" on the other hand is neither colloquial nor correct: it fixes the case but still fails to use a verb.)
"I, too" isn't colloquial, but it is acceptable, especially if you then repeat whatever the action was action (e.g. "I, too, like running"). Also, English is, oddly enough, colloquially adopting the objective case (English's combination of Akk/Dat) in places previously not used (e.g. "I am him", "me, too"). It may have started out as incorrect, per se, but now it's used so frequently by so many people that it's correct colloquial English.
Generally, genitive personal pronouns are only used in the case of a genitive verb or adjective:
- sich annehmen: "meine Mutter nahm sich seiner an"
- gedenken: "gedenkt unserer mit Nachsicht" –Brecht
- sich erbarmen: "erbarme dich meiner!"
- harren: "wir harren deiner"
- bewusst: "der Mensch ist seiner selbst bewusst"
Honestly, you don't need really to worry about this as a learner unless you'd consider yourself a Leseratte – genitive personal pronouns are relatively rare in contemporary German.
Seinetwegen and wegen ihm are both used in regular spoken German in the northern Sprachraum. In the south, however, wegen ihm is far more common. Wegen seiner is also possible but rare (mostly archaic).
Edit: Just found a map to this from the "everyday-speech atlas" - reflecting colloquial norms:
P.S. The genitive certainly isn't only used in old German textbooks, it is widespread in the written language and also non-colloquial spoken language, and failing to use it in these contexts is generally considered a sign of low education.
It is 100% correct to begin an English sentence with "because" if the sentence has two clauses: Because I had forgotten my permission slip, I was not allowed to go on the field trip. Our teachers told us that "rule" to keep us from trying to pass off a single subordinate clause as a complete sentence: /Because I had forgotten my permission slip/ (not a complete sentence).
Overview of cases: http://www.canoo.net/services/OnlineGrammar/Wort/Nomen/Kasus/index.html?lang=en Cases and prepositions: http://www.canoo.net/services/OnlineGrammar/Wort/Praeposition/Kasus/index.html?lang=en Hope it helps.
I made a set of tables that helped me memorize this. There are some good patterns in it.
Position in the sentence has nothing to do with it. The direct object (which I guess is what you mean by “first object”) is the thing the verb happens to. The indirect or second object is the thing the verb happens for, often the recipient or beneficiary of the action: in “I give you the book”, “book” is the direct object (and therefore goes in the accusative in German) while “you” is the indirect object and goes in the dative.
None of that has anything to do with this sentence, where the dative is used because in some varieties of German “wegen” is one of the prepositions that requires its object to be in the dative case.
Sentences aren’t dative; only nouns and pronouns and their modifiers/determiners (adjectives and articles) can be dative. Whether they are or not is determined by their function in the sentence. Specifically, the indirect object of the verb and the object of certain prepositions is placed in the dative.
Well, generally a whole sentence isn't a case. Sentences can be made up of words belonging to different cases. In this case, there is a dative (ihm) and nominative (wir).
I assume this is what you meant, but if you're confused about which case comes after wegen, as stated elsewhere in this discussion, it is genitive, colloquially often substituted by the dative.
We learn that wegen is a preposition that governs the genitive, but 'Wegen seiner beginnen wir' is incorrect. I understand that using the dative with wegen may be OK, but don't understand why the genitive pronoun is not also OK. Also, seinetwegen may be a better choice? I suspect I'll be fussing with preposition mastery for the remainder of this course.
My understanding (as a USA-dwelling monolingual student of German, so apply salt liberally) is that “wegen seiner” is technically correct, but rarely heard. You can compare it to English phrases such as “It is I” which lose out to the more common “it’s me” in everyday speech. With nouns, you still frequently hear the correct genitive form after wegen, but with pronouns it’s almost always the dative.
"Wegen"="because of". I believe it's a preposition. "Wegen ihm" forms one logical unit (since you cannot meaningfully take it apart). Since German requires that the (first) verb occupies the second logical position, your only choices are:
- Wir beginnen wegen ihm (the standard word order)
- Wegen ihm beginnen wir (the word order that emphasizes wegen ihm).
Accusative is used for the (pro)noun being acted upon, the direct object of a sentence. What's be acted upon in this sentence? Nothing. The nominative is used for the (pro)noun that carries out the verb, the subject of a sentence. What's carrying out the verb beginnen? Wir is.
Similarly, one doesn't say in English "because of him us begin" but rather "because of him we begin".
Why not? It is a perfectly fine sentence, it could be expanded but that's not necessary. As far as I can remember from the course, Duolingo never really gets advanced enough for full sentences like you'd read in a book or something, only the simple "die Maus mag Käse" and such.