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mein Rock = my skirt
dein Rock = your skirt (informal, addressing one person)
sein Rock = his skirt/its skirt
ihr Rock = her skirt/their skirt
unser Rock = our skirt
euer Rock = your skirt (informal, addressing more than one person)
Ihr [capitalised] Rock = your skirt (formal, addressing one or more people)
I m not very sure, but i think that you singular is du, you plural is ihr, you formsl is Sie. And in this case that you ve point to, we have ihr rock ist kurz (her because is singular), and ihr (your plural) rock seid kurz. So i think that seid or ist point through the context. But i m not sure. I really need to read the info from files in duolingo group fb. There are info for all the lessons. Guten nacht!
The word ''ihr'' has several meanings, depending on what place it has in a sentence.
In the nominative case (subject of the sentence) it means you (plural) -"Ihr (beide) seid Mädchen" = "You (both) are girls" -"Kennt ihr das Mädchen?" = "Do you know that girl?"
As a possessive pronoun it can mean either "her", "their", or "(formal) your" -"Ihr Mädchen ist nett" = "Her/their/your girl is nice" -"Das ist Ihr Mädchen" = "That is your girl"
When it's capitalized mid-sentence, it always means "(formal) your", just like "Sie" capitalized mid-sentence always means (formal) you.
Hope this helped :)!
I don't even know what that upside down a means. But to me it sounds like she's saying a long o [o] and emphasizing a t, which isn't even in the word! The ʊ is closer to what i was thinking. There is no pronunciation guide with this program, and her voice does not seem to match the other (divergent) opinions that i am finding elsewhere online. And i also have trouble clipping my r because i grew up near the Mexican border/hearing a lot of Spanish. I already clip my vowels, but they roll their r's, so that comes naturally to me, too..
To me, Duolingo's pronunciation sounds fine as far as this particular word goes. In German, the letter "z" is always pronounced [ts]. Also, note that the Standard German [ʁ] is not the same as the Spanish [r]. The former, which is the same as in French, is produced in the back of the mouth and the latter in the front of the mouth.
Wikipedia has audio recordings for each sound:
I don't know why it won't let me reply to your last... The page http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near-open_central_vowel says ɐ is an "Allophone of /ər/ used in many dialects." What i was working through in my head but didn't put together until yesterday at work is that ɐ is a sound that i've copied a lot for a while now but never knew the symbol to put with it. Wasser is the first word that comes to mind as it was introduced to me on two different apps.
I took a Speech class with IPA and "Language Systems and Linguistic Diversity" in college/university and i want to know how to pronounce things properly, how to write them in IPA, etc. Part of this is because i have a lisp and need to think about where sounds should come from in my mouth in order to replicate them properly, part of it's because i'm a nerd. My professor in Speech considered [ɚ] to be a single sound. We never used [ɹ] in class, i don't think it was even in my textbook (i wish i would have kept that book, i think i threw it out, though). In hindsight that seems ridiculous, like a huge mistake on the authors' part, as not all English r's are made in the same part of the mouth, but maybe they were hoping to simplify things. Some students hated the IPA but i found it to be fascinating and wish i hadn't let it go so much, i'm a bit rusty.
As far as r's go, in my mouth [ɚ] is nearer the r in red than a Spanish r, which is up front. Your link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_uvular_fricative says that [ɹ] in red is the right r for German and i have been thinking about that now and practicing it a bit. Listening to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near-open_central_vowel, [ɐ] seems to take on a slight [ɹ] at the end, too, that is not as pronounced but it seems to me that there's some friction in the back of the throat that creates it. But i could just be making things up in my head.
The big difference, of course, that one uses more of a [ʌ], softened into the [ə] because it's not the syllable with the accent, and the other is closer to [a].
Sorry if i'm bothering you, thanks for the help.
So the ɐ is very close to ɚ. This is not what i am hearing from her and what i felt would be right. Saying red helped me find ʁ where i was feeling a bit lost with it before. I went back the the youtube video i watched before and her [ts] has a much softer t than i'm hearing here, too. Thank you for these links.
[ɚ] really consists of two sounds: [ə] and [ɹ]. The former is called "schwa" and the latter is the English/American "r", which doesn't exist in German. So I suppose you meant [ə]. A lot of vowels sound relatively similar, but I wouldn't say [ə] is particularly close to [ɐ]. Both sounds exist in German. They're not interchangeable. For instance, "e" in "heute" is pronounced [ə] and "er" in "oder" is pronounced [ɐ].
Again, I also recommend listening to the audio recordings on Wikipedia. Definitely use headphones if you can.
It may take you some time to get accustomed to the German sound system. I wouldn't worry about it too much.
My experience in German class with older German literature and my old Cassell German dictionary define DER ROCK as 1) a man's coat and 2) a woman's skirt. My Let's Learn German Picture Dictionary has DER ROCK as a skirt. Has common use changed so much that COAT is not an acceptable translation for this question lacking a clear context?
That's another possible (and accepted) translation.
At the beginning of a sentence, possessive Ihr could be any of "your - their - her", unless context says otherwise.
That is, something belonging to sie (she / they) or to Sie (you).
In the middle of a sentence, ihr and Ihr are distinct, but lowercase ihr is still ambiguous between "her" and "their" without context.
Does that mean I can use whatever gender I prefer?
Just like you can't choose in English to say "I lave" instead of "I lived" or "I gived" instead of "I gave". There's no "reason" (within current English, i.e. without looking at history) why "live" is regular but "give" is irregular, but that doesn't mean that you can simply make any verb you like regular or irregular.
Now that the genders of nouns have been chosen (presumably by our ancestors several millennia ago), they are fixed.