Actually, in spoken English, there is a difference in pronunciation between the two meanings of "Chinese teacher." By putting a slightly stronger emphasis on "Chinese," you are referring to a teacher of Chinese language. On the other hand, by putting the slightly stronger emphasis on "teacher," you are referring to a teacher of Chinese nationality. It's subtle, but native speakers would pick up on it easily.
It sounded weird to me too because the Z sound for the liason seemed to be attached to "chinois" instead of to "est" and then there was no liason between "est" and "un" which is a strange inconsistency. So I would have expected to hear "Mon professeur de chinoi zetunhomme". Google translate has it right.
Thank you. I looked at the forbidden liasons on about.com and wasn't sure. I guess that this one falls under names? http://french.about.com/library/pronunciation/bl-liaisons-f.htm
Note that if you mark the liaison after "chinois", you get "chinoiZ" which is really confusing vs "chinoise".
Now, for "est-T-un", please take a look at this other page (paragraph III): http://french.about.com/library/pronunciation/bl-liaisons-o.htm
Non, car vous avez changé le sens de la phrase.
Ce que vous proposez est la traduction de "Mon professeur est un Chinois". Comme vous pouvez le voir, rien ne dit qu'il enseigne la langue chinoise, de même que dans "My Chinese teacher is a man/Mon professeur de chinois est un homme", vous ne connaissez pas l'origine du professeur en question.
The trick is that not everybody want to say "ma professeur" if the teacher is a 'she'. Because it sounds weird, and because (for whatever obscure reason) that noun has not been feminized, for example in "la professeuse" (think about un serveur/une serveuse = waiter/waitress).
Some activists will use "ma professeure", just adding a (mute!) -e at the end, and "une auteure" (female author), to clearly mark the fact that although these occupations were massively masculine a long time ago, it needs to be made official that nowadays not only women do have fee access to these professions, but they now form a huge majority (like judges - un juge/une juge, and lawyers (un avocat-une avocate).
Languages are masculine nouns "le français, l'anglais, le chinois...".
"Chinois, chinoise, chinois, chinoises" is an adjective which can qualify any noun, including "la langue chinoise".
"Un Chinois, une Chinoise, des Chinois, des Chinoises" is the noun given to Chinese people.