"Dw i yma."
Translation:I am here.
When I watched "Y Gwyll" (in Welsh with Eng. subtitles), I thought I heard "bore yma" for "this morning." ... (1) Is that what I heard? If not, what did I hear? ... (2) If yes, is "yma" also used the way that the determiner "this" is used in Eng. (ex.: this morning)?
You probably heard bore 'ma, which is a common spoken way of saying 'this morning'. In full it would be y bore 'ma or, more formally, y bore hwn.
In conjunction with 'r/yr/y 'ma is commonly used for 'this' in the colloquial language, and similarly 'na is used for that.
- y car 'ma - this car
- Dyw Sioned ddim yn hoffi'r ci 'na. - Sioned doesn't like that dog.
- Dw i ddim yn licio'r car 'ma. - I don't like this car.
Because of the soft sound of the 'y' (i don't know the proper way to describe that) why wouldn't it be "Dw i'n yma?"
The sound of y- makes no difference here.
As explained in the notes to the 'Present tense' section and elsewhere, yn/'n is used to link dw i, dych chi, etc to following verb-nouns (hoffi, bwyta, mynd, ...) and adjectives and nouns (twym, tal, byr, athro, ...)
yma is none of these - it is an adverb describing where something is or is happening, and so the linking yn/'n is not needed:
- Dw i'n bwyta - (eating) - needed
- Dw i'n dal - (tall) - needed
- Dw i yma - (here) - not needed
- Dw i wrth y drws - (by the door)
- Dych chi gyda Dewi - (with Dewi)
- Dych chi ar y to - (on the roof)