"Что ты делал в четверг?"
Translation:What did you do on Thursday?
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There's no real explanation. In the sentences like this we use prepositional with months, locative with years (in Russian it's a variation of the prepositional rather than a case on it's own right), and accusative with days of the week. That's just how it is.
How is четверг supposed to be pronounced? Here, the stress is on the second syllable (четверг), but I think I have heard the stress on the first syllable (четверг).
The days of the week are also based on numbers in Portuguese, but Sunday is the reference point. Thursday, for example, is "quinta-feira". "Quinta", its short version, also means "fifth" (feminine), since it's the fifth day from Sunday. Because of that, learning days of the week in Russian can get very confusing, since you consider Monday the first day of the week! :)
I have the same question as another sentence. I would say, what were you doing on Thursday
i thought the perfective version of "do, make" verb is in russian "сделать" and i am confused about this example.
No, you can't omit "в". It's there for grammatical reasons, not related to formality. Native speakers can pronounce it so briefly that it's almost inaudible, but we don't omit it completely.