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Jokes aside: Does this phrase particularly allude that Hans is attracted to our sister romantically or that his like for her could be platonic? Or can it be used both ways and meaning inferred? Thanks!
Modal verbs ("mögen," "können," "sollen," etc.) don't add "-t" on third person singular. So it's both "Ich mag" and "Er/Sie/Es mag" ("Er kann," "Sie soll," etc.).
As in English ("I can - he can"), and for the same reason.
In German, this is also true for wissen, which is not modal: ich weiß - er weiß.
People making irrelevant comments that weren't about learning German.
What if I wanted to say "Hans doesn't like my sister"? Would it be "Hans mag meine Schwester nicht" or "Hans mag nicht meine Schwester"?
It would be Hans mag meine Schwester nicht.
The other one would be used if you are contrasting, e.g. Hans mag nicht meine Schwester, sondern meinen Bruder "It's not my sister whom Hans likes but my brother / Hans doesn't like my sister but rather my brother".
Could this sentence also be said like "Hans steht auf meine Schwester".?
auf jemanden stehen is a bit more like "is attracted to" or "has a crush on" than simply "like".
It's also rather informal.
They're definitely not interchangeable or mean the same thing.