"Je suis professeur."
Translation:I am a professor.
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Yes, that's true ! I'm French, and I heard "proviseur", not "professeur" ! "Proviseur" in English is "headmaster" or "principal".
In fact, in France (not applicable to Quebec, Switzerland or belgium, school teacher are officially called "professeur des écoles" (litteral translation of school teacher) but most of the time they are called "instit'" for "instituteur/institutrice" they former name and called by the pupils "maître/maîtresse" after, in collège and lycée, they are called "professeur" (or "prof") and when speaking to them "Monsieur/madame". In university there is the "Maître de conférences" and "professeur des universités" and only the latter have the title or professeur, but most of the time, people are still talking to them saying "monsieur/madame"
Yes, "professeur" is the first translation for "teacher". Students have "professeurs" from the age of 11, each with their own subjects (French, English, history & geography, maths, etc.) until the age of 18 (end of high school) and beyond in universities or specialty schools.
The British would say, "I am a teacher." A professor is a senior lecturer.
You would need "je suis professeur de lycée/d'université", without "un" because "de lycée/d'université" are professional qualifications. You would come back to "un professeur" with a non-professional qualifier, like "un professeur respecté" or "un professeur qui a de l'expérience".
I see what you mean.but I was thinking about introducing someone else : c'est un professeur de lycée (in that case you need the un) and not speaking about oneself because the question was "how do you differentiate the different teachers" so I assumed the question wasn't talking about oneself.
You can perfectly say c'est un professeur d'université/de collège and it is about a qualification, using "un", un/une is not reserved only to a non-professional qualifier.
With state verbs (être, devenir, rester), the profession becomes an adjective: Je suis professeur (I am a teacher), je deviendrai professeur (I will become a teacher), je suis resté professeur (I stayed a teacher).
The article comes back if the profession is further modified: "Je suis un bon professeur" (I am a good teacher), "Je suis un professeur qui aime ses élèves" (I am a teacher who likes his/her students)