Translation:Vera Ivanovna, does your daughter have a car?
From the official Tips:
Omit ”есть” if the existence of the object is obvious or not the point
Here you need есть because the sentence is about the existence of the object. Does it exist or not? Does your daughter have a car or doesn't she? It is not about what kind of car she has (a blue one maybe? a large one?). In your other example the sentence describes what kind of boss you have. So if I ask you what kind of boss you have, I already know (or at least I assume) that you have a boss. Therefore you don't need есть and can answer with У нас хороший начальник.
So, as a rule of thumb, if you have an adjective or a number describing the object, you can usually omit есть. That being said, it is not impossible to have both. In this sentence for example, the primary translation has both, есть and an adjective (рыжая). However, you can still translate that sentence without есть and it gets accepted.