Latin for Duolingo: Future Tense, Lesson 1
Salvete omnes! Welcome back to Latin for Duolingo. This is an ongoing, unofficial course in Latin; if you would like to catch up with previous lessons, you can find a directory, a classified vocabulary list, and Memrise courses at these links:
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Today we continue exploring verb tenses with the Future Tense. The Present, Imperfect, and Future tenses together are known as the “Present system” because they all use the “present stem” which is formed from the 1st principal part. I like to study these three tenses together because it’s easier to learn the endings and rules with this kind of systematic approach, it saves effort because these rules apply to most verbs, and I believe it helps long-term memory. And I’ll share a silly song that may help later on.
For all conjugations, the “present stem” is the 1st principal part, minus the -o on the end. Exempli gratiā: voc-, mon-, mitt- or capi-, audi-
To form the future tense:
present stem + a + bo, bis, bit, bimus, bitis, bunt
vocabo = I will (shall) call, vocabis = you will call, vocabit = he will call
vocabimus = we will (shall) call, vocabitis = you will call, vocabunt = they will call
present stem + e + bo, bis, bit, bimus, bitis, bunt
monebo = I will warn, monebis = you will warn, monebit = he will warn
monebimus = we will warn, monebitis = you will warn, monebunt = they will warn
(This first lesson will feature only 1st and 2nd conjugation verbs, and one irregular verb)
3rd and 4th conjugations:
present stem + am, es, et, emus, etis, ent
mittam, mittes, mittet, mittemus, mittetis, mittent
capiam, capies, capiet, capiemus, capietis, capient
audiam, audies, audiet, audiemus, audietis, audient
The irregular verb sum has its unique conjugation in future tense:
ero = I will be, eris = you will be, erit = he will be
erimus = we will be, eritis = you will be, erunt = they will be
Now for the silly song, as promised, which gives you paradigms for all three tenses of the present system:
(to the tune of Three Blind Mice)
-o, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt
-bam, -bas, -bat, -bamus, -batis, -bant
-bo, -bis, -bit, -bimus, -bitis, -bunt; or -am, -es, -et, -emus, -etis, ent
These are the endings for Present System, Active Voice
(Use the 1st principal part)
proximus, i = neighbor
proximus, a, um (adj.) = nearest, next, most recent, latest
Gaius in scholā erit. = Gaius will be in school.
Felices erimus. = We will be happy.
Ubi eris/eritis? = Where will you be?
Ibi erunt. = They will be there.
Cras in officio ero. = I will be in the office tomorrow.
Te exspectabo. = I will wait for you.
Unam hebdomadem espectabunt. = They will wait for one week.
Vocabisne/vocabitisne Matrem? = Will you call Mother?
Eam vocabo. = I will call her.
Paula Marcum proximā hebdomade videbit. = Paula will see Marcus next week.
Me non videbis. = You will not see me.
Librum tibi die Veneris dabo. = I will give you the book on Friday.
Lucia parentibus donum dabit. = Lucia will give her parents a gift.
Ad scholam ambulabimus. = We will walk to school.
Nobiscum manebis/manebitis. = You will stay with us.
Hic pernoctabimus. = We will spend the night here.
Die Martis navigabimus. = We will sail on Tuesday.
Nos adjuvabunt(adiuvabunt). = They will help us.
Vobiscum cras laborabo. = I will work with you tomorrow.
Magistra discipulos verbum novum docebit. = The teacher will teach the students the new word.
Liberi nimium televisionis spectabunt. = The children will watch too much television.
Serpentes Paulam terrebunt. = The snakes will frighten Paula.
Proximo anno raedam habebo.(raedam mihi erit). = Next year I will have a car.
Proximo mense pecuniae egebit. = He will need the money next month.
Proximo die Solis cum proximis cenabimus. = Next Sunday we will eat dinner with the neighbors.
Monebisne regem hostes venire? = Will you warn the king that the enemies are coming? (An example of the accusative + infinitive construction, literally, “Will you warn the king the enemies to come?”)
More future tense, including those 3rd and 4th conjugation verbs that have different endings, next time. Gratias vobis ago et habete bonam fortunam!
I see that sensible and helpful posts are being down-voted again, while ridiculous rants stay afloat with more than ten up-votes. I gave you some lingots to show my appreciation of your hard work, although I am not ready to learn the future tense yet. :)