Javanese Info and websites!
Hello Everyone! I hope your all having a wonderful day!
Some of you may not know what Javanese is, so i wanted to make a post about it! (I know i made one for Lithuanian just two days ago but i really want Javanese to get a bit more recognition on here, i swear this will be the last for a while.)
So, Javanese is the language of the Javanese people from Central and eastern Java, Indonesia. Javanese is one of the Austronesian languages along with Malay and Tagalog. (There are others.) It is the 14 most spoken language in the world! Javanese is spoken by 75 million + people.
There are three main dialects of Javanese:
Western Javanese is spoken along the northern coast of West Java. It is influenced by Sunda. Central Javanese is considered to be the prestige dialect, and serves as a basis for standard Javanese. Eastern Javanese is spoken in East Java. It is influenced by Madura.
Copy and pasted with a few words changed from This website
Grammar Javanese is an agglutinative language.
Nouns are not marked for number, gender or definiteness. These categories are usually inferred from context, unless there is an important distinction to be made.
Javanese is rich in pronouns. Personal pronouns are marked for person. Most pronouns are marked for familiarity and formality. There is an inclusive 1st person plural pronoun, i.e., one that includes the addressee, and an exclusive 1st person pronoun, i.e., one that excludes the addressee. In all formal situations, personal names, kinship terms, or titles are used in place of 2nd person pronouns.
Verbs are not marked for person or tense. These categories are inferred from context or expressed by adverbs, time words or clauses. There is only one true tense marker in the language, namely the future marker. Mood (indicative, imperative, subjunctive) and voice (active and passive) are marked by affixes, adverbs or other auxiliary words.
The typical word order of Javanese is Subject-Verb-Object. However, other word orders are possible, depending on emphasis and style. For instance, words constituting the focus of a sentence (part of the sentence that contains the most important, or new information) usually appear in initial position. Modifiers normally follow the noun they modify. Quantifiers usually precede nouns.
Registers (styles) Javanese speech registers vary from one social context to another. Different social contexts require different registers, or styles. Each style has its own vocabulary, grammar, and even intonation. This is not unique to Javanese. Other Austronesian languages. as well as East and Southeast Asian languages such as Korean, Japanese, and Thai, also use registers that vary from one social context to another.
There are three registers in Javanese:
Ngoko (informal) It is used between friends and close relatives. It is also used by persons of higher status when addressing persons of lower status, such as elders addressing younger people or bosses speaking to subordinates.
Madya (polite informal, neutral) This is an intermedial register that is neither informal nor formal. It is used in informal situations such as between strangers on the street.
Krama (polite formal) It is used between individuals of equal status in formal situations. It is also used in formal announcements and public speeches. In addition, Javanese uses humilifics and honorifics to indicate sensitivity to status as defined by age, social position, and other factors. Humilifics are used when one talks about oneself, one has to be humble. Honorifics are used when one speaks about someone of a higher status or one to whom one wants to show respect.
The use of these different styles is complicated and requires knowledge of the Javanese culture. Most Javanese do not master all the styles. They usually learn ngoko and the basics of madya. Young Javanese have problems with learning this social stratification of language.
Most Javanese vocabulary is Austronesian in origin. As in other Austronesian languages, native Javanese roots are bisyllabic. New words are formed by reduplication and compounding. For example is nuwun sewu ‘excuse me’ which literally means ‘ask a thousand’ (nuwun ‘ask’ + =sewu ‘a thousand’).
The vocabulary of Javanese has been enriched by numerous borrowings from other languages. One of the earliest sources of borrowing was Sanskrit from which an estimated 25% of the vocabulary in Old Javanese literature was derived. Today, many Sanskrit words are still in use, particularly in formal speech and writing. Javanese has also borrowed words from Arabic, Dutch, and Malay. Most Arabic loanwords have to do with Islam.
Ah, sorry this is so long! The rest is putting in some websites if you'd like to check Javanese out!
Okay! That's the end! A quick note, I've only briefly skimmed these websites and they look to be pretty helpful. If one or more is not, please let me know, Thanks!
When you say you're not going to be doing this for a while, no. Don't stop. What you're doing is helping Duolingo. Helping. Be proud, you deserve some lingots.
Thanks ^.^ I'm just afraid i'll accidentally spam when i post these types of things.