Malay - Basics 2
Previous: Basics 1
Lesson 1 of 3
Here are some plural words that we had learnt previously:
بودق٢ للاکي - boys = budak-budak lelaki
بودق٢ ڤرمڤوان - girls = budak-budak perempuan
للاکي٢ - men = lelaki-lelaki
وانيتا٢ - women = wanita-wanita
بودقق٢ - children/kids = budak-budak
As you can see, you just need to write the word twice with a hyphen between it without any spaces in Rumi or simply put ٢ after the word without any space in Jawi. For compound words, just copy first word of the compound word. Plurals will be discuss later on.
This is one of the feature in Malay that English doesn't have.
In Malay, there are two "we":
کيت - we (inclusive) = kita
/ki.ta/ - When someone use 'kita', it refers to all the person he/she is talking to including YOU!
کامي - we (exclusive) = kami
/ka.mi/ - For this, it refers to everyone he/she is talking except you sadly ;c
How do you say when you are currently doing something? Use:
سدڠ - am/is/are = sedang
/sə.daŋ/ - used after verb
For example سدڠ مينوم - is/am/are drinking = sedang minum
You can't just eat and drink all the time! Time to hit the books!
To read, you say:
ممباچ - read = membaca
Any kind of reading material that is book-like, the classifier would be:
نسخه / naskhah
Commonly, you say book as:
بوکو - book = buku
/bu.ku/ - Interesting fact about this word is that it is borrowed from Dutch "boek" not from English "book".
Beside "buku", you can say (ranking from common usage to the least):
کتاب - kitab
ڤوستاک - pustaka
سورت خبر - newspaper = surat khabar
اخبر - paper (newspaper) = akhbar
Here are some sentences.
.کامي سدڠ ممباچ بوکو
Kami sedang membaca buku. - We are reading a book.
دي ممباچ سورت٢ خبر ايت.
Dia membaca surat-surat khabar itu. - He/She reads the newspapers.
Lesson 2 of 3
Now, let's talk about you for a change!
Like any other pronouns in Malay, there are various 'you' since there are many kind of people in the world. For this lesson, commonly we use:
کامو - kamu
/ka.mu/ - you (sg. neutral)
In formal and polite situation, we use:
اندا - anda
/anda/ - you (sg. polite)
If you are talking to many people, you use:
کاليان - kalian
/ka.lian/ - you (pl.)
مريک - they = mereka
سوسو - milk = susu
For any drink, you use collective nouns like a cup of, a glass of or a tin of. For milk, it would be likely glass? Does anyone drink it in a cup or even in a tin? Who knows?
ݢلس / gelas
/gə.las/ - glass
سندويچ - sandwich = sandwic
کڤيڠ / keping
/kə.piŋ/ - piece
Malay people's staple food is rice but in Malay there are two kind of 'rice'.
Before putting it in the rice cooker, it is called:
برس - rice (raw) = beras
منانق - cook = menanak
/mə.na.naʔ/ - usually used for rice
After the "برس" being cooked, it is called:
ناسي - rice (cooked) = nasi
Now for some examples!
.کامي سدڠ منانق ناسي دان دي سدڠ ممباچ بوکو
Kami sedang menanak nasi dan dia sedang membaca buku. - We (excl.) are cooking rice and he/she is reading book.
.مريک ماکن سکڤيڠ سندويچ دان ساي مينوم سݢلس سوسو
Mereka makan sekeping sandwic dan saya minum segelas susu. - They eat a sandwic and I drink a glass of milk.
Now for some particles in Malay.
-له / lah-
/lah/ - suffixed into base word in exclamation sentences as an order, advice etc. (kinda similar to Chinese 了 "le") Depends on your tone of voice.
.باچاله بوکو ايت
Bacalah buku. - Read books, please. (This can be an a suggestion or and advice for someone to read books.)
!مينومله سوسو ايت
Minumlah susu itu! - Drink the milk! (This is an order or a command since an exclamation mark is used)
When giving an order, advice, etc, it is not necessary to have a subject in it. For example in English, it would be "You drink the milk!" but in Malay the subject mostly is dropped and "you" is not needed.
-که / kah-
/kah/ - Used in questions. Similar to Chinese 吗 "ma". In English, the nearest equivalent word for this in my opinion is "is it?"
کامو باچ بوکوکه؟
Kamu baca bukukah? - Are you reading book(s)? (lit. You read book? not in the sense that the subject rarely reads book.)
Sandwich makanankah? - Is sandwich a food?
دياکه وانيتا ايت؟
Diakah wanita itu? - Is she/he the/that woman?
Lesson 3 of 3
Let's learn more reading material words.
ميمو - menu = menu
کرتس - paper (normal paper) = kertas
For these two words, the classifier is:
کڤيڠ / keping
Now, you have something you want to show to someone. How do you say it in Malay? Here are some words that carries the meaning "has/have" in Malay. For this lesson, we will use:
اد - has/have = ada
.ساي اد سنسخه بوکو
Saya ada buku. - I have a book.
You can also use:
ممڤوڽاءي - mempunyai
/məm.pu.ɲa.i/ - to possess something
.بودق ايت ممڤوڽاءي کرتس دان وتي
Budak itu mempunyai kertas dan roti. - The child has a paper and bread.
By omitting classifiers, you couldn't really tell if the noun is singular or plural even though the noun is in base form.
You could say the person is being neutral and does not want to be specific in his/her sentence.
So, the sentence above can be translated as. The child has papers and breads.
اي - it = ia
.اي اد سندويچ
Ia ada sandwic. - It has a sandwich.
There's more to come!
Next: Common phrases
Interesting!!! I've never seen Malay before, but it looks cool!!! :-)
I have no idea why this was being downvoted :-(
I did suggest it before but still no response. At least people can still learn Malay via forum for now.
You might need to manually type it in for some reason the link from here is not working but when I typed it just now in another page it worked. Not sure why mabe it's dulingo blocking it. Give it a try manually. Saya berfungsi untuk anda kawan saya. :)