I would like to start the topic i am interested in. Everbody's welcome to contribute to the topic if you like to search origins and stories behind the words. I'm starting with "salary";
Salary comes from "salarium" in Latin. "Sal" means salt. Some texts that i find from internet says salt was used to as an allowance for soldiers in the past. In Italian: salary →salario; salt→il sale.
In Turkish, we say "tuzlu" which means "salty" for extremly expensive things. Probably story comes from there. :)
category (n.) 1580s, from Middle French catégorie, from Late Latin categoria, from Greek kategoria "accusation, prediction, category," verbal noun from kategorein "to speak against; to accuse, assert, predicate," from kata "down to" (or perhaps "against;" see cata-) + agoreuein "to harangue, to declaim (in the assembly)," from agora "public assembly" (see agora). Original sense of "accuse" weakened to "assert, name" by the time Aristotle applied kategoria to his 10 classes of things that can be named.
[the word] "category" should be used by no-one who is not prepared to state
(1) that he does not mean class,
(2) that he knows the difference between the two .... [Fowler] http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0=category
Car. From Middle English, Norman French, Old French/Late Latin, borrowed from Gaulish (!) where it meant a four-wheeled vehicle (presumably without an engine). Source: OED.
Disaster→ dis+astro(star,planet/Greek: astron) Italian: Disastro
It means, people believed that some bad things occured cause of the positions of planets or starts in a wrong way