Latin for Duolingo: Future Tense, Lesson 2
Salvete omnes! Welcome back to Latin for Duolingo. This is an ongoing, unofficial course in Latin; if you would like to catch up with previous lessons, you can find a directory, a classified vocabulary list, and Memrise courses at these links:
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- Previous lesson, Future, Lesson 1
Today’s lesson continues the future tense in Latin. As we saw last lesson, 1st and 2nd conjugation verbs use the endings
bo, bis, bit, bimus, bitis, bunt to form the future tense (with the help of the connecting vowel A for 1st conjugation, E for 2nd). This week we’ll turn to the forms used for the 3rd and 4th conjugations:
3rd and 4th conjugations:
present stem + am, es, et, emus, etis, ent
mittam, mittes, mittet, mittemus, mittetis, mittent
capiam, capies, capiet, capiemus, capietis, capient
audiam, audies, audiet, audiemus, audietis, audient
Most irregular verbs follow the pattern of 3rd/4th conjugation verbs, except for compounds of sum which follow that pattern (ero, eris, erit, erimus, eritis, erunt) and compounds of eo (ibo, ibis, ibit, ibimus, ibitis, ibunt). I’ll introduce a few of these in this lesson and a few in the next.
nemo, neminis = no one, nobody (3rd declension noun, a compound of ne+homo)
Epistulam mittam. = I will send the letter.
Nemo hoc leget. = No one will read this.
Hodie pullum edunt; cras holera edent. = Today they eat chicken; tomorrow they will eat vegetables.
Quis solvet? = Who will pay?
Nunc aquam bibimus; vespere vinum bibemus. = Now we are drinking water; in the evening we will drink wine.
Cras intelleges/intellegetis. = Tomorrow you will understand.
Mater de hoc audiet. = Mother will hear about this.
Vivent. = They will live.
Quando venies/venietis? = When will you come?
Paula ambulabit, sed Lucia curret. = Paula will walk, but Lucia will run.
Marcus librum emet, sed Gaius libros vendet. = Marcus will buy a book, but Gaius will sell books.
Nemo mihi credet! = No one will believe me!
Numquam claves inveniam. = I will never find the keys.
Milites gladios ponent. = The soldiers will put down their swords.
Quid dicent? = What will they say?
Quid agent/facient? = What will they do?
Senatus aget. = The Senate will act.
Marcus domi (opus faciet)/(laborabit). = Marcus will work at home.
Tecum ibo. = I will go with you.
Quo ibis? = Where will you go?
Dormient. = They will sleep.
Nemo sciet. = No one will know.
Mox ludere potero. = Soon I will be able to play.
Nemo dormire poterit. = No one will be able to sleep.
Solvere non poterunt. = They will not be able to pay.
Saccharum in theam non ponam. = I will not put sugar in the tea.
“Non facies tibi sculptile.” = Thou shalt not make for yourself a graven image. (Exodus 20:4)
“Non occides.” = Thou shalt not murder. (Exodus 20:13)
“Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?” (Juvenal) = Who will guard the guards themselves?
Proximā lectione plus discemus. = We will learn more in the next lesson.
Go to the next lesson: Future Tense 3