https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Taufik_Rosman

Malay - Alphabets

For your first very lesson, we will go through the Malay alphabets.

Rumi Alphabets

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz

Jawi Alphabets

ا أ إ ب ت ث ج چ ح خ د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ڠ ف ڤ ق ک ݢ ل م ن و ؤ ۏ ه ة ء ي ى ئ ڽ


alif - (ـا / ا)

Rumi: a

IPA: /a/

English: father

Malay words

  • اتڤ - roof = atap

  • اڤ - what = apa

  • انتارا - between = antara


Rumi: e

IPA: /ə/

English: bird

Malay words

  • امق - mother = emak

  • امڤت - four = empat

  • ارت - tight = erat

Note: Only used in the first syllabus of a word (eg. emak, empat)



hamzah atas alif - (ـأ / أ)

Rumi: various transliteration

IPA: /ʔ/

Malay words

  • أي - Aa (name of letter) = e

  • مأموم - congregation of prayer = makmum

  • دأڠکت - being carried = diangkat



hamzah bawah alif - (ـإ / إ)

Rumi: various transliteration

IPA: /ʔ/

Malay words

  • إسلام - Islam = Islam

  • إي-ميل - e-mail = e-mel

  • إيه - ah (an interjection) = eh



ba - (بـ / ـبـ / ـب / ب)

Rumi: b

IPA: /b/

English: bat

Malay words

  • باچ - to read = baca

  • بهارو - new = baharu

  • بتول - correct/true = betul



ta - (تـ / ـتـ / ـت / ت)

Rumi: t

IPA: /t/

English: top

Malay words

  • توݢو - monument = tugu

  • لتق - to put = letak

  • مات - eye = mata



sa - (ثـ / ـثـ / ـث / ث)

IPA: /θ/

Rumi: s

English: thin / thick

Greek: θάλασσα

Welsh: saith

It is also loosely pronounced as /s/ like in English say

Malay words

  • ثلجي - snow = salji

  • ثلاث - Tuesday = Selasa

  • بحث - to debate = bahas



jim - (جـ / ـجـ / ـج / ج)

Rumi: j

IPA: /d͡ʒ/

English: jet

Malay words

  • جوتا - million = juta

  • بوروج - constellation = buruj

  • باج - fertiliser = baja



ca - (چـ / ـچـ / ـچ / چ)

Rumi: c

IPA: /t͡ʃ/

English: chat

Malay words

  • چوچي - to wash = cuci

  • چاري - to search = cari

  • چاچيڠ - worm = cacing



ha kecil - (حـ / ـحـ / ـح / ح)

Rumi: h

IPA: /ħ/ or /h/

English: hat

Malay words

  • حيوان - animal = haiwan

  • حاکيم - (a) judge = hakim

  • حروف - letter (ABC) = huruf



kha - (خـ / ـخـ / ـخ / خ)

Rumi: kh

IPA: /x/

English: loch

Malay words

  • خميس - Thursday = Khamis

  • خيمه - tent = khemah

  • خدمت - service = khidmat



dal - (ـد / د)

Rumi: d

IPA: /d/

English: dog

Malay words

  • دري - from = dari

  • داݢو - chin = dagu

  • دوري - thorn = duri



zal - (ـذ / ذ)

Rumi: z

IPA: /ð/ - more likely to have a /z/ sound in buzz

English: this

Malay words

  • ذات - essence = zat

  • ايذين - permission = izin

  • اذان - call of prayer = azan



ra - (ـر / ر)

Rumi: r

IPA: /r/

English: rabbit

Malay words

  • روسا - deer = rusa

  • رومڤوت - grass = rumput

  • راتوس - hundred = ratus



zai - (ـز / ز)

Rumi: z or x

IPA: /z/

English: zoo

Malay words

  • زيلوفون - xylophone = xilofon

  • زون - zone = zon

  • زمرود - emerald = zamrud



sin - (سـ / ـسـ / ـس / س)

Rumi: s

IPA: /s/

English: so

Malay words

  • ساکيت - sick = sakit

  • سوسو - milk = susu

  • ساتو - one = satu



syin - (شـ / ـشـ / ـش / ش)

Rumi: sy

IPA: /ʃ/

English: shall

Malay words

  • شکور - grateful = syukur

  • شمڤو - milk = susu

  • شريکت - company = syarikat



sad - (صـ / ـصـ / ـص / ص)

Rumi: s

IPA: /s/

English: soap

Malay words

  • صبر - patience = sabar

  • صفر - zero = sifar

  • صح - valid = sah



dad - (ضـ / ـضـ / ـض / ض)

Rumi: d

IPA: /d/

English: dug

Malay words

  • ضرب - multiply = darab

  • ضرورة - emergency (of a nation) = darurat

  • ضعيف - weak (lowly) = daif



to - (طـ / ـطـ / ـط / ط)

Rumi: t

IPA: /t/

English: thought

Malay words

  • طمع - greedy = tamak

  • طوفان - hurricane = taufan

  • طلاق - divorce = talak



zo - (ظـ / ـظـ / ـظ / ظ)

Rumi: z

IPA: /z/

English: zest

Malay words

  • ظاهير - external = zahir

  • ظاليم - cruel = zalim

  • ظهر - noon = zohor



ain - (عـ / ـعـ / ـع / ع)

Rumi: a

IPA: /ʕ/

Also loosely pronounced as /ʔ/

Malay words

  • عاديل - justice = adil

  • عالم - world = alam

  • عقل - mind = akal



ghain - (غـ / ـغـ / ـغ / غ)

Rumi: gh

IPA: /ɣ/ - Also loosely pronounced as /g/

Irish: dhorn

Spanish: amigo

Turkish: ağa

Vietnamese: ghế

Malay words

  • غاءيب - concealed, invisible = ghaib

  • غاءيره - zeal = ghairah

  • غاليب - victory = ghalib



nga - (ڠـ / ـڠـ / ـڠ / ڠ)

Rumi: ng

IPA: /ŋ/

English: singing

Malay words

  • ڠاڠا - to open wide (mouth) = nganga

  • ڠري - scary, dreadful = ngeri

  • ڠيلو - edge, aching = ngilu



fa - (فـ / ـفـ / ـف / ف)

Rumi: f

IPA: /f/

English: fan

Malay words

  • فيري - ferry = feri

  • فيکير - to think = fikir

  • فلک - astronomy = falak



pa - (ڤـ / ـڤـ / ـڤ / ڤ)

Rumi: p

IPA: /p/

English: pan

Malay words

  • ڤوس - post = pos

  • ڤيڤي - cheek = pipi

  • ڤنتس - fast = pantas



qaf - (قـ / ـقـ / ـق / ق)

Rumi: q or k

IPA: /q/

English: back or cut

Malay words

  • قدر - God's decision = qadar

  • قديم - future = qadim

  • قرون - century = kurun


Only in non-foreign loanwords with closed syllabus.

Rumi: k

IPA: /ʔ/

English: uh-oh

Malay words

  • ڤتيق - to pluck/pick/quote = petik

  • ڤقسا - to force = paksa

  • کاکق - older sister = kakak



kaf - (کـ / ـکـ / ـک / ک)

Similar to Persian and not the Arabic ك

Rumi: k

IPA: /k/

English: king

Malay words

  • کاري - curry = kari

  • کيري - left (direction) = kiri

  • کوکوس - to steam = kukus



ga - (ݢـ / ـݢـ / ـݢ / ݢ)

Rumi: g

IPA: /g/

English: get

Malay words

  • ݢاسيڠ - top (a toy) = gasing

  • ݢونوڠ - mountain = gunung

  • ݢتر - to vibrate = getar



lam - (لـ / ـلـ / ـل / ل)

Rumi: l

IPA: /l/

English: lilly

Malay words

  • لاکون - to act = lakon

  • لاڤيس - layer = lapis

  • لوسا - day after tomorrow = lusa



mim - (مـ / ـمـ / ـم / م)

Rumi: m

IPA: /m/

English: more

Malay words

  • مات - eye/point = mata

  • مانيس - sweet = manis

  • مکر - to blossom = mekar



nun - (نـ / ـنـ / ـن / ن)

Rumi: n

IPA: /n/

English: no

Malay words

  • نانس - pineapple = nanas

  • نوتا - note = nota

  • نحو - grammar = nahu



wau - (ـو / و)

Rumi: w

IPA: /w/

English: wet

Malay words

  • واڠي - aromatic, scented (opposite of smelly) = wangi

  • وقتو - time = waktu

  • ورنا - colour = warna


Rumi: o or u

IPA: /o/ or /u/

English: knot or loot

Malay words

  • اوکور - to measure = ukur

  • بوکو - book = buku

  • سوتوڠ - octopus, squid = sotong



hamzah atas wau - (ـؤ / ؤ)

Rumi: various transliteration

IPA: /ʔ/

Malay words

  • مؤمن - believer of god = mukmin

  • مؤتمر - congress = muktamar

  • مؤذن - a person who says the call of prayer = muazin



va - (ـۏ / ۏ)

Rumi: v

IPA: /v/

English: vet

Malay words

  • ۏن - van = van

  • ۏيديو - video = video

  • ۏرسي - version = versi



ha simpul - (هـ / ـهـ / ـه / ه)

Rumi: h

IPA: /h/

English: help

Malay words

  • هاري - day = hari

  • هوبوڠ - to connect = hubung

  • هيجاو - green = hijau



ta marbutah - (تـ / ـتـ / ـة / ة)

Rumi: t or h

IPA: /t/ or /h/

English: tall or help

Malay words

  • مدرسة - religious school = madrasah

  • عبادة - prayer, worship = ibadat

  • توبة - to repent = taubat



hamzah - (ء)

Rumi: various transliteration

IPA: /ʔ/

Malay words

  • قرءان - Koran = Quran

  • قراءة - reading (of Koran) = qiraat

  • وضوء - ablution = wuduk



ya - (يـ / ـيـ / ـي / ي)

Rumi: y

IPA: /j/

English: yet

Malay words

  • يورن - fee = yuran

  • يو - shark = yu

  • ييس - yeast = yis


Rumi: i or e

IPA: /i/ or /e/

English: we or let

Malay words

  • ليوات - fee = yuran

  • کيک - cake = kek

  • اولي - to knead = uli



alif maqsurah - (ـى / ى)

Rumi: e

IPA: /ə/

English: bird

Malay words

  • تنتى - aunt = tante

  • ناسيوناليسمى - nationalism = nasionalisme

  • ڤاتريوتيسمى - patriotism = patriotisme


Rumi: a

IPA: /a/

English: stuck

Malay words

  • دعوى - to prosecute = dakwa

  • تقوى - to obey to God = takwa

  • فتوى - religious law = fatwa



hamzah berumah - (ئـ / ـئـ / ـئ / ئ)

Rumi: various transliteration

IPA: /ʔ/

Malay words

  • مسئله - problem = masalah

  • ملائکة - angel = malaikat

  • سوبئوردر - suborder = suborder



nya - (ڽـ / ـڽـ / ـڽ / ڽ)

Rumi: ny

Spanish: piñata

IPA: /ɲ/

Malay words

  • ڽاڽي - to sing = nyanyi

  • ڽاموق - mosquito = nyamuk

  • ڽالا - to ignite = nyala



Next: Connecting Letters

Directory

February 22, 2017

4 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SportsOcean

Thanks for this post!!! The various experience are super helpful and the script for Malay looks really cool!!! :-)

February 22, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Taufik_Rosman

If you found Jawi is hard, you may use Rumi instead. Rumi spellings are mostly based on pronunciation of a word except for a little number of foreign loanwords. Jawi spellings on the other hand are basically based on rules, logic and history but I am planning to make a part two of this later on, maybe?

February 22, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SportsOcean

You should make a part two for Jawi Spellings!

February 22, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Taufik_Rosman

I will but I'm going to make it after several lessons later since most of these Jawi spellings are technical stuff. So for now, just memorise the spelling. Actually, there are many 'laws' to be learn in Jawi and it is taught in a separated subject from Malay in school here.

February 23, 2017
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