"I do not want to eat here."

Translation:Я не хочу їсти тут.

1 year ago

2 Comments


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How do you tell which form of the verb to use?

1 year ago

[deactivated user]

    The sentence usually has a main verb, and sometimes more additional verb forms. In English, the main verb usually comes before the other verbs (so, in 'I want to eat', 'want' is the main verb).

    The main verb will use the personal verb form. The personal verb form (here, it’s хочу) tells most grammatical information about what happens in the sentence.

    The personal verb form is chosen to show:

    • mood: whether the sentence describes reality (indicative mood: я хо́чу 'I want), wishful thinking (subjunctive mood: я хоті́ла б 'I would like'), or orders (imperative mood: хотіть '[I order you to] want'),
    • tense (only in indicative mood): whether the action happened before the point of reference (past time), is happening during the point of reference (present tense), or will after it (future tense); the point of reference is usually the present moment, except in subordinate sentences, where it’s relative to the event described in the main sentence;
    • number: whether the action is done by one person or by a group of person (you use a singular or plural form respectively),
    • person (only in indicative in future/present tense, and and imperative mood): whether the person doing the action is taking part in the conversation (if the speaker, you use the 1st person form; if the action is done by the listener, you use the 2nd person form; in all the other cases, you use the 3rd person form),
    • gender (only in past tense, or in subjunctive mood): whether someone doing the action is male (masculine gender), female (feminine), or neither (neuter).

    If this looks complex, that’s because it indeed is! Personal verb forms are the main piece of information in the sentence, so they have a lot of forms because they tell us a lot of things.

    Luckily, all the verbs follow more-or-less regular patterns: you change the ending to get the required form, and there are just two sets of ending (some verbs use one set, others use another).

    Also, not all forms are equally useful. For example, while a special form for wishful thinking is useful («я б поїла» 'I would eat'), you can replace it with «я хочу їсти» 'I want to eat'. So, you don’t need to learn them all to have a meaningful conversation.

    You can look at the possible forms of хотіти in Wiktionary: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/хотіти#Conjugation (click on the 'Conjugation of хотіти' to see it).

    The sentence usually has only one personal verb. It can have more than one only if they are joined by a conjunction (я хо́чу і мо́жу 'I want and I can'), or when it’s a complex sentence made up from several smaller sentences.

    Other verbs in the sentence can’t have personal verb forms. If your sentence has more than one verb (and it’s not joined by a conjunction), then it will have one of the impersonal verb forms:

    • infinitive: just a generic reference to action (чита́ти важли́во 'to read is important'),
    • adjectival participle: used to describe some things (e.g. забу́тий зо́шит 'a forgotten textbook' — forgotten is an adjectival participle of забу́ти),
    • impersonal form in -но/-то: used to describe something happened (e.g. зо́шит забу́то 'the textbook was forgotten'),
    • adverbial participle: used to say that some action was in progress when another action happened (хо́чучи 'while wanting').

    Of these, the most useful is infinitive. It can be attached to other verbs. For example, in «хочу їсти», їсти is infinitive. The sentence usually has only one personal form, but it can have as much infinitives as you want: хочу хотіти їсти 'I want to want to eat', etc.

    If your sentence has more than one verb, the main verb usually will have a personal form, and the second one will usually have infinitive. E.g. «я хочу зна́ти» 'I want to know', «я лю́блю малюва́ти» 'I like to draw/drawing', etc.

    1 year ago
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