Japanese Lesson 69: Present Tense Verbs 2 Part 3
Needs: Hitsuyou: ひつよう： 必要 (noun/na-adjective)
Try: Tamesu: ためす： 試す
Try on clothes: Shichaku: しちゃく： 試着
Try out: -te miru: -てみる： -て見る (verb conjugation)
Try (make an effort to do): -you to suru: -ようとする (verb conjugation)
Includes: Fukumu: ふくむ： 含む (to contain, to comprise of)
Ask: Kiku: きく： 聞く
Note: Yes this is also the word for "listen" or "hear".
Present: Happyou suru: はっぴょう する： 発表する (to announce, publicate, or make known)
Works: Hataraku: はたらく： 働く (eg: a job, labor, etc.)
Talk: Hanasu: はなす： 話す
He needs her.
Kare wa kanojo ga hitsuyou desu.
かれ は かのじょ が ひつよう です。
I'm going to teach this the same way I taught "like" and "dislike" Since you can't control the things you need, like you can't control what you like or dislike, you need to use the particle "ga" instead of "o".
I realize that's not the textbook answer. (something about there being no direct object) but if you're like me and understand this sentence as, in this case, "kanojo" being the object and "needing" happening to that object then the above is a good way to remember.
I ask you.
Watashi wa anata ni kikimasu.
わたし は あなた に ききます。
So again, this is kind of strange as an English speaker. Having the word for "ask" also be the same for "listen". We want to use the directional particle に (ni) here to indicate that you are asking "anata". So this might be literally translated to "I ask at you", if that helps you wrap your head around it better.
You try on a dress.
Anata wa doresu o shichaku shimasu.
あなた は ドレス を しちゃく します。
note: in this situation only "shichakushimasu" seems applicable, however in the grammar section I'm going to show you how to conjugate verbs to show that you are trying an action! :D
The children talk.
Sono kodomo wa hanashimasu.
その こども は はなします。
(lit: those children speak)
Kanojo wa hataraiteimasu.
かのじょ は はたらいています。
In this case I'd use the Continuous verb form (-te imasu) to show that someone is presently doing that thing... even if they're not necessarily doing it that moment. She has a job and therefore she presently works, even if, say, it's her day off today.
The meal includes cheese.
Sono shokuji wa chi-zu o fukumimasu.
その しょくじ は チーズ を ふくみます。
I present the menu.
Watashi wa menyu- o happyou shimasu.
わたし は メニュー を はっぴょう します。
(lit: I announce/make known the menu)
GRAMMAR POINT To try something:
Tae Kim has a great lesson on this so be sure to check it out!!
In Japanese they have two different ways to express this word that we don't in English. One is "to try something out" and the other is "to make an effort to do something", paraphrasing Tae Kim's lesson here.
To express "trying something out" you conjugate your verb to "te" form, and then you add "miru" 「-て見る」You can think of this as seeing if you can do something. Eh? Eh?! :D Nice little mnemonic!
"Making an effort to do something" however requires you to conjugate to "volitional" form, which we haven't covered before. What "volitional" means is that you're setting out with the will and intent to do something. Those of you who watch Anime might have actually heard this form often. This form ends in an "ou" you might here it in "Ikou!" or "Let's go!" or "~mashou" when someone's planning on leaving or doing something with someone else.
To conjugate this for RU verbs you want to take off the "ru" and add "you". EG: Taberu → Tabe → Tabeyou
For U verbs take off the last "u" and replace it with "ou"
EG: Iku → Ikou
The exceptions of course being "suru" and "kuru" which change to "Shiyou" and "koyou".
Otherwise conjugate as normal but instead of "-masu" "-masen" "-mashita" or "-masendeshita" add "-mashou"
Again paraphrased from this other lesson from Tae Kim explaining desire and volition
But back to the word try. Conjugate to the shorter volitional form like say "Ikou" and add "to suru" afterwords. This shows that you're going to be making an attempt to do something.