Can someone explain the correlatives?
Hey, guys, I'm currently having troubles with the correlatives. I saw the chart in the food lessons and I've been trying to remember it but it isn't quite making sense. Why does Kio change to Kion? I guess all I need is an easy explanation and a way to remember them (you don't have to respond if you don't want to.)
Here's the table of correlatives: https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Esperanto/Appendix/Table_of_correlatives
I found it much easier to learn the correlatives as a table instead of trying to memorize 50 different words individually. (That is, once you learn that ki- means what or which, and -o signifies a thing, you can figure out that kio essentially means what thing. And then when you add -a, which is kind or type, you know kia is what kind, and so on.)
Your question about kio and kion isn't to do with the correlatives specifically, it's about the accusative -n, which you will find on other words as well. The accusative indicates the object of the sentence (and the -n is used in a couple of other cases, like indicating motion). We don't really use this in English very much, but we do in a few cases. For instance:
I saw her.
You wouldn't say "I saw she" or "I saw they", you'd use the object form--"her" and "them". Accusative in Esperanto is the same idea, except that you don't just use it for pronouns. (And that means word order can be flexible.)
Mi vidis ŝin. I saw her.
Min vidis ŝi. She saw me.
Ŝin vidis mi. I saw her.
Ŝi vidis min. She saw me.
Mi ŝin vidis. I saw her.
Min ŝi vidis. She saw me.
Ŝin mi vidis. I saw her.
Ŝi min vidis. She saw me.
It takes a little practice and you'll forget to add the -n a lot at first, but once you get the hang of it, it makes a lot of grammatical sense.
Does that help at all?
Yeah, that works. Thanks for the website too. I get the "n" on the object thing, I just didn't get why some sentences started with Kion when there were only like a verb and a noun that go along with it. Dankon kaj vi estas brila!
Same idea--like, "Kion vi vidis?" "What did you see?" If you sub in a pronoun, you can tell. "Ĉu lin vi vidis?" "Did you see him?" (Incidentally, this is also the trick to using "who" and "whom" correctly in English. WhoM did you see? I saw hiM.)
Nedankinde, glad it was some help!
For many learners, the table is more confusing than helpful. The important thing is to learn them in context and a few at a time. I have a video course where I explain all this stuff... and here is the episode that is focused on the correlatives.
Hey man, can you explain why kiel means as? If you can, if not, is the word just a homophone?
If you run into people who speak English as a second language, you might run into people who say things like, "You do that the same how I do it." >> "Vi faras tion same kiel mi faras." It sounds awkward in English, but maybe this one example will make it clear.
Saluton MaarshTz. On your chart, you'll notice that "el" refers to -way/manner/how.(depending on the chart) So, ki-el, would be how/as, depending on the context of the sentence.
Another thing that might help is to come up with your OWN examples for each of the correlatives. They will be pretty goofy, but they will be memorable!
There's a deck on Tinycards that can help you. There you'll learn first what each preffix and suffix means, and then each complete word. Tinycards use spaced repetition like Duolingo, which means that it will also ask you to practice when you're about to forget the words.