This is a bit tricky. "made of" is used when the material the object consists of doesn't change during the process of making it. For example: Chairs are made of wood. while "made from" is used is used when the material is changed dramatically. For example: Paper is made from wood.
However this should test your Deutsch not English.
The noun has a case number and gender. Determiners (der, die, das, ein, eine, ein; dieser, diese, dieses; mein, meine, mein...) and adjectives (klein) that form a group with the noun (Mann, Frau, Kind) have to agree in case, number and gender. They each get the appropriate infection according to their word class.
I’m not sure, if this answers your question. It is a fundamental principle of German grammar.
Determiner adjective noun in nominative singular:
Dieser kleine Mann (masculine).
Diese kleine Frau (feminine).
Dieses kleine Kind (neuter)
Is there a trick to know a word would be masculine, feminine, or neutral?
No, not in general.
You cannot tell the gender of a noun just by looking at it -- in fact, there are even pairs of nouns that are spelled the same but have different gender! For example, der Leiter = the leader, die Leiter = the ladder; der Bauer = the farmer, das Bauer = the birdcage.
Some endings will give you a clue to the gender (e.g. abstract nouns ending in -heit, -keit are feminine: die Freiheit, die Eitelkeit), but in general, you simply have to look up the word in a dictionary and memorise its gender and its plural form (another thing that's impossible to guess in general, and again, there are pairs of words that are spelled the same in the singular but have distinct plural forms, e.g. der Ausdruck "the print-out; the expression" gives die Ausdrucke "the print-outs" and die Ausdrücke "the expressions").
What makes stuhl (chair) masculine?
Please pay attention to the spelling: the word is Stuhl, with a capital S.
It's masculine because its ancestor, Proto-Germanic *stōlaz, was masculine. Which is also why Old English stōl "chair, seat" was masculine -- but since then, English has lost noun gender and now "stool" has no gender.
There's ultimately no logic behind grammatical gender.
This is quite the same as in English.
This chair is made from wood. (preposition from - no article)
Dieser Stuhl ist aus Holz. (preposition aus - no article)
The definite article would only my included if it refered to a specific wood.
(I choped down a treee.) This chair is made from the wood.
(I habe einen Baum gefällt.) Dieser Stuhl ist aus dem Holz.
Nope. A chair has a back and is lower to sit at a standard height table; a stool generally doesn't have a back (but can) and is taller ... or very short, like a milking stool. No back: stool; with a back and tall: stool; with a back and not tall: chair (even if very short). As mentioned elsewhere in this discussion, stool in English best equates to "der Hocker" in German.
So, knowing that jenes is really rare, can't we say "Diseses Baum", when in English we would mean "THAT tree, that is far from here". We can't use das here, because it refers to object in particular.
You can't say dieser Baum for "THAT tree that is far from here", correct.
You can and should say der Baum. In speech, you would stress the word der to make the meaning "that" instead of "the".
Optionally, you can also say der Baum da (that tree there) or der Baum dort (that tree over there), to make it clearer that it's "that" and not "the".
Similarly, dieser Baum for "this tree" could also be not only der Baum but also der Baum hier "this tree here".
But we have "Dieser" in this sentence, and here (https://www.duolingo.com/comment/1252496/Use-of-Das-vs-Dies-vs-Diese-Nominativ) it is said that 'dieser' == this or that. Is 'dies' the same as 'dieser'?
"First of all, there is no such clear cut difference in German as in English between this and that. In principle, there are the two forms dieses (this) and jenes (that), but Germans pretty much never use "jenes" anymore. We just always use the same."
I figured out that "the same that is always used" is "dieses" and it's declensions, including dieser - am i wrong?