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Immediate Past Negative -ja-

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Since I noticed there was a bit missing in the Tips and Notes for the Past 2 (immediate past) skill (namely, the section on negatives), I thought I'd whip something up in the meantime for anyone that might be confused, at least until Branden can put up something better.

To form the negative immediate past in Swahili:

Change the positive subject prefixes into negative subject prefixes.

Change the immediate past tense marker -me- into -ja- and drop the infinitive ku- from monosyllabic and irregular verbs (kula, kunywa, kuja, kufa, kwenda).

Mifano:

Affirmative --> Negative
Nimekula --> Sijala
Umesoma --> Hujasoma
Ameandika --> Hajaandika
Tumejifunza --> Hatujajifunza
Mmechora --> Hamjachora
Wamepika --> Hawajapika

As -me- is used with immediate states of being, -ja- is similarly used to negate them.

Mifano:

Swahili --> English
Sijachoka --> I am not tired
Hujachoka --> You are not tired
Hajachelewa --> He/She is not late
Hatujachelewa --> We are not late
Hamjashiba --> You(pl) are not full
Hawajashiba --> They are not full

1 year ago

1 Comment


https://www.duolingo.com/AGreatUserName
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I just wanted to point out that the ku of monosyllabic verbs is only optionally dropped with ja. Some speakers keep it, so don't be surprised if you encounter sijakula as well as sijala.

1 year ago
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