https://www.duolingo.com/Patrick.-

History of the Languages through the ages (The Indoeuropean Languages)

Patrick.-
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Introduction: Hello! I am here to talk a little about the origins of languages ​​and how they evolved over the years, if you are learning a language in Duolingo is fine, but if you want to know how the language was created, how were created the words and why some sentences are similar in two or more languages, here you will have the answers.

Today we will talk about Indo-European languages, a proto-language that was then divided into 8 different roots, which are used today.

In ancient times, the very old, the nomads wandering around Europe split up, and headed for multiple directions. When they were a single community they communicated through the Indo-European a proto-language of which several languages ​​descended. But several centuries later, they began to develop a more complex language in each of the regions, and 8 are the roots of which the current languages ​​descend ...

Germanic: Germanic languages ​​are one of the oldest, since the investigations in the northern areas prove it, these languages ​​spread throughout the northern part of Europe, and they were called barbarians by the Romans, because they spoke a language Different from Latin. These were spoken in the present territory of England, Germany, Holland, Scandinavia and after the conquest of America and Africa by the English, this language expanded and then became the second most spoken language in the world: English. The Germanic languages ​​were not much altered by Latin, since according to the investigations, the German, Scandinavian and British towns were very conservative, and managed to retain their language successfully until they rebelled against the Romans and created independent reigns. If you do not know there are other Germanic languages ​​spoken outside Europe, the Afrikaans, South African language is very similar to Dutch, since they conquered a part of South Africa, Guyana and Surinam speak Dutch, although there are also mixtures between the Native languages ​​and abroad. But there is a country of that region that does not use these words, and it is Finland, Finland does not use words of any type since they say that they preferred not to have contact with any reign. Like the Finnish, there are other European languages ​​that have no Indo-European roots like Hungarian or Turkish.

Romance: The Romance languages ​​were developed to the northwest of the Mediterranean Sea, they arose in the present country of Italy, and before the Roman domination, no one knew that this language existed, but after the rise and fall of Rome, Romance arrived until The Iberian peninsula, the Gallia and the nearby islands. In 1492, the discovery of America by the Spanish Cristóbal Colón (Christopher Columbus) was made, and with that, the powerful ones of Europe decided to take possession of those exotic lands, the Spaniards: Francisco Pizarro, Diego de Almagro and Hernando de Luque, arrived at the Tahuantinsuyo and conquered all The west coast of South America, and all of Central America. That was where the different ways of speaking Spanish were born, but on the other side, the Portuguese, arrived in the present territory of Brazil. They had a different way of speaking the Romance, as they were influenced by Arabic languages, Norman languages ​​and Spanish. While the east coast of U.S.A. Was conquered by France in the treaty of Louisiana, have not realized that the most famous place bears a French name, in addition Louisiana is in New Orleans, Orleans is a city in the center of France, culture and the French language is spoken And I am excited about the launch of the Haitian Creole this year, there you will also see the similarities of the language.

Celtic: Celtic is a language from the northernmost part of Europe, it is not currently widely spoken as several of its dialects are extinct. Only two countries have Celtic languages ​​as native languages, namely Wales and Ireland. If they realize, several of the Welsh words are very similar to the English ones, since the Anglo-Saxon peoples mixed it with the Germanic one and the Latin and appeared the majority of the English language words. The Celta was a very old language and is being extinguished today, but thanks to Duolingo can be revived. The Celts were a very old community, at one time managed to conquer much of Europe including Spain, Germany and France, they were called "κελτόι" by the greeks, it means "the hidden ones", cause they used to live in very hidden places. But after the Romans conquered Europe, they introduced the Celtic Language into the Latin, that's why some words in Spanish and French are similar to the Celtic ones.

Balto-Slavic: The Balto-Slavic languages ​​were developed on the east coast of the Baltic Sea, and there are two classes, the Slavic languages ​​are those spoken in central Europe, in the territories occupied by Kievan Rus in the 10th century , Which are: Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Serbia, etc. Slavic languages ​​may resemble each other, especially Czech with the Slovak as they were once one kingdom. But one of the most "modern" languages ​​was Russian, created in the tenth century d.c. Used another type of alphabet, Cyrillic, which consisted of all different letters, and another pronunciation, but if we compare it with the Polish language, you can see that the pronunciation does not change, it only changes the script. The Slavic language was also considered barbaric by the Romans, who included some Latin words in the Slavic vocabulary. On the Baltic Sea coast are two countries that use the Baltic languages ​​that are Lithuania and Belarus, these two small countries mixed the Cyrillic (Russian) and converted it to the Latin alphabet, that is why most of the words are very strange if you are from Spain or Italy.

Indo-Iranian: Indo-Iranian languages ​​are the oldest of this list, since they emerged on the Indus River, where the first civilizations used it, the Hindus were not a well-known people, after all the area they occupied was very Small, but over the years, adventurers and merchants took the language throughout the Indian, and reached the present area of ​​Iran, could not go further because the Israeli people did not allow religions other than the His, and the same case happened with the Arabs. Some of the languages ​​lack an alphabet, and only use symbols, so it is very difficult to learn them for someone who is accustomed to the Latin alphabet, for example, in Asia, most languages ​​do not use a stable alphabet, use symbols that Have only one meaning. It is so complicated that not even the people of China can memorize all their symbols, so in the middle of the crisis of the twentieth century, they decided to simplify their symbols to make them easier to remember.

Hellenic: The Hellenic languages, along with Romance, make up the languages ​​that today we use the Spanish-speakers, These are composed by another alphabet, of which several letters descend, the Greek letter "φ" (phi) is now the Letter "f", in the current Greek, to say: "fruit" is written: "φρούτο" in Spanish it would be pronounced: "fruta", as well as this, there are many more words that had their beginnings in ancient Greece. When the Romans came to the Greek land, they did not implant their language in them, but took it away, and after doing so, they fused it with Romance, and Latin was created, a dialect that expanded along the west coast of the Mediterranean Sea, And became the French, Spanish, etc.

Albanian: Albanian is a unique language, which has its earliest mention, around the 12th century after Christ, when a man heard someone shouting in the "Albanian language." The kingdom of Albania was not a very social kingdom since very little is known of its origins, Albanian language also had great influence in Slavic languages, like Serbian or Macedonian. These use the Cyrillic alphabet, but at the same time they mix terms or words from Albania. The Albanian language was not recognized until the 20th century when the Dibra congress approved it.

Armenian: Armenian does not use a stable alphabet, like the Indo-Iranian languages,The origins of the Armenian Language are in many ancient Armenian manuscripts in which it is believed that they transcribed Christian and Persian manuscripts, of which they took influence , It is also believed that it has influence of the Greek language and the Uralic but not enough investigations have been done enough to affirm it. The languagewas one of the most important in the Byzantine Empire, cause they were used in the Gregorian Chants. There are many legends about the music of the ancient times, but the legend of Khosrovidukht is one of the most interesting (for me).

Next time we will be talking about the Extinct Indoeuropean Languages, and how they died. See ya'

https://twitter.com/TendenciasLima

1 year ago

6 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Osnakezz
Osnakezz
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Aren't the Anatolian languages the oldest, and after that, the Balto-Slavic, Greek and Indo-Iranic ones? Also, weren't it that the Germanic languages only came to rise about around ~1500 B.C., but were dialectial Indo-European back then, and it could be only around ~500 B.C. that they could be seen as a true own family?

Very neat post, though, OP.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/AmareloTiago
AmareloTiago
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I think Tocharian is older than the Balto-Slavic family?

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Captain_Duo
Captain_Duo
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that's really cool!!

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Fire-ergens
Fire-ergens
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Just a small correction, I noticed you used 'Holland' to refer to 'The Netherlands'. You may want to change that to 'The Netherlands' as the word 'Holland' is incorrect when speaking about the country or the place where certain languages are/were spoken. (The area known as Holland is just 2 of the 12 provinces and they're not the most interesting provinces from a linguistic focus.)

See video for details about this Holland/Netherlands confusion:

You may also want to mention 'Gothic' from the East-Germanic family, a dead language (family).

Another interesting thinhg about the Germanic languages is the big influence one of those languages (mIddle Low German) had on almost every other Germanic languages. It was the official language of the Hanseatic League which had ports and cities all over Europe. Thanks to this language, you can see some suprising similarities not only between Germanic languages, but non-Germanic languages as well. (Baltic languages for example) It's modern-day descendant is a language (with so much dialects that it's better to either call it a pluricentric alnguage or a dialect continuum as it has no standard version) that's called either Low Saxon/Nedersaksies (Netherlands) or Low German/Plattdüütsch (Germany)

PS; The Baltic languages are not Lithuanian and Belarussian, but Lithuanian and Latvian. (spoken in LIthuania and Latvia) Belarussian is Slavic. You may also want to mention that Lithuanian is actually the closest known language to Proto Indo-European.

PPS: I'm pretty sure the Romans never went into the area that's nowadays known as Scandinavia. Also, Old Norse was also spoken on Iceland and the Faroe Islands anddhas eolved into Icelandic and Faroese. (both of which are very interesting as they preserved some older features)

Sorry for the long post, I hope I do not sound too rude. Still, it was a very interesting read.

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Patrick.-
Patrick.-
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Oh yeah, sorry I am accostumbrated to the word "Holanda" in Spanish

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/matteo449299

Really interesting to learn the origins of these languages

1 year ago
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