The possesive - la posedkazo
Mi komprenas kiel indiki la posedkazon per vortoj kiel 'via' kaj 'mia', sed ne mi komprenas kiel indiki gxi en kazoj kiel ´the cat's toy´. Kiel vi dirus ĉi tiu? 'La ludilo de la kato'?
Hello! I understand how to indicate the possesive case with words like 'via' and 'mia', but I don't understand how to indicate it in cases like 'the cat's toy'. How would you say this? Something like 'the toy of the cat'?
Ajna helpo estus bonega! And feel free to critique my Esperanto as well! Just started a few days ago!
What's remarkable to me about this question is that not only did you answer your own question (yes, it's "la ludilo de la kato") but that you managed to write the whole thing in pretty darn good Esperanto. Keep it up!!
"La vortaro estas danĝera libro"
This was the title of an article that I read when I was first learning German years ago. I've been teaching Esperanto for 20 years and I have had countless students send me a translation of the following sentence with the wrong word for "behind"
- He ran behind the tree.
There are lots of words that translate to "behind."
Nu... Li kuris malantaŭ la arbon.
Multaj respondas "Li kuris postaĵo la arbo."
- He ran, butt, the tree.
Okay - after investigating a bit, it seems that 'de' can in fact be used to indicate la posedkazo. So, 'la knabo de la patrino' would mean 'The mother's child' and 'the mother of the child', similar to how that is constructed in romance languages.
So, 'la knabo de la patrino' would mean 'The mother's child' and 'the mother of the child'
You're almost right: in fact, this would mean either "the mother's child" or "the child of the mother". "The mother of the child" would be "La patrino de la infano" (the child's mother).
Dutch and German use the same construction but with van and von respectively. Dutch "Dat huis van mijn ouderen" (my parents' house) German "Das Haus von meinen Eltern." German has a genitive case that is withering away, so technically you could say "das Haus meiner Eltern," but most likely you wouldn't. In colloquial German, the construction with "von" is more common except for personal names. Van and von also have the meaning of "from" as in the Romance languages.
English uses the same construction, with "of." You can say, "my father's legacy" or "the legacy of my father." The second one would make a good book title. "Of" also has the meaning of from, but it's more of a tinge from earlier times: Anne of Cleves was a woman named Anne from the Duchy of Cleves.
Just about all of western Europe prefers a prepositional phrase for possession, except English and the North Germanic languages (Icelandic, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish).
You can sometimes use the adjective form: "la kata ludo". Note that this really means something more like "the cat toy"; a toy for a cat, or a cat shaped toy (e.g. for a child). So even though it doesn't expressly state the owner, it can get the point across on who will be playing with the toy.
Yes, there is no genitive case in Esperanto (or dative or instrumental or anything other than nominative and accusative).
Possession of nouns is by means of the preposition de as in Romance.
So this is not a case of a kazo -- just like "I cut the bread with a knife" is not an example of an instrumental case in English.
gxusta, ne korekta. ("Korekta" means something more like "corrective" ...which corrects (something), as in "korekta programo, would be an autocorrect program)