Latin for Duolingo: Perfect Tense, Lesson 3
Salvete omnes! Welcome back to Latin for Duolingo. This is an ongoing, unofficial course in Latin; if you would like to catch up with previous lessons, you can find a directory, a classified vocabulary list, and Memrise courses at these links:
- Directory of Lessons
- Vocabulary List
- Memrise course for vocabulary
- Memrise course with sentences
- Previous lesson: Perfect Tense 2
The past two lessons have introduced several common perfect tense verbs. The nice thing about the perfect tense is that it is very regular, following the same rules even for irregular verbs. We’ll continue adding more verbs in today’s lesson. Remember that all perfect tense active verbs use the 3rd principal part as stem, and add the endings i, isti, it, imus, istis, erunt. The translation in English can be “subject verbed, subject has verbed, or subject did verb.” The most complicated part of the perfect tense is learning the 3rd principal parts of all the verbs, if you haven’t already. You will notice that with the verb “eo” and its variants, there are two acceptable forms for the perfect tense. In practical usage “ivi” was often shortened to “ii” and it appears both ways in the literature.
Verbs in This Lesson
clamo, 1 = shout, cry, proclaim
doceo, docēre, docui, doctus, 2 = teach, inform
maneo, manēre, mansi, mansurus, 2 = remain, stay
terreo, 2 = frighten, terrify
amitto, amittere, amisi, amissus, 3 = lose, send away
capio, capere, cepi, captus, 3 (i-stem) = take, catch, capture
curro, currere, cucurri, cursus, 3 = run, hurry
induo, induere, indui, indutus, 3 = put on (clothing), dress in
abeo, abire, abivi/abii, abitum = go away, leave, depart
adfero/affero, adferre, attuli, allatus = bring to, deliver, carry
eo, ire, ivi/ii, itum = go
exeo, exire, exii (exivi), exitum = go out, exit
fero, ferre, tuli, latus = bear, bring, carry
ineo, inire, inii/inivi, initus = go into, begin, enter
volo, velle, volui = am willing, wish for, want
pugna, ae = fight, battle
dolor, doloris, m. = pain, sorrow
transeo, transire, transivi/transii, transitus = go across, go over, cross, pass
quamdiu, adv. = how long?
Liberos linguam Latinam docui. = I taught the children Latin.
Docuisti Gaium legere? = Did you teach Gaius to read?
Sororem terruisti, et ea clamavit. = You frightened your sister, and she shouted.
Librum amisi. = I lost the book.
Amiseruntne claves? = Did they lose the keys?
Paula calceos induit. = Paula put on her shoes.
Marcus domum ivit/iit. = Marcus went home.
Ad scholam ivimus/iimus. = We went to school.
Lucia abiit/abivit. = Lucia has gone away. (departed, left, “passed away”: if you want to make it clear, “Lucia e vitā abiit.”)
Milites flumen transiverunt/transierunt. = The soldiers went across the river.
Hiems transivit/transiit. = Winter has passed.
Sic transit gloria mundi. = Thus passes the glory of the world.
E raedā exivi/exii. = I got out of the car.
Ex aedificio exiverunt/exierunt. = They went out of the building.
Quis pugnam inivit/iniit? = Who started the fight?
Inivistine pugnam? = Did you start the fight?
Scribere epistulam volui. = I wanted to write a letter.
Vestimenta nova emere voluerunt. = They wanted to buy new clothes.
Quamdiu ibi mansisti? = How long did you stay there? (quam “how” + diu “for long time” = quamdiu)
Lanam fecit, domum mansit. = She spun her wool, she stayed at home. (epitaph of the ideal Roman woman)
Marcus signum legionis tulit. = Marcus bore/carried the standard of the legion.
Dolorem fortiter tulisti. = You bore the pain bravely.
Vinum attulimus, sed panem attulistis. = We brought wine, but you brought bread.
Dolorem tibi attulerunt. = They brought trouble to you.
Novem milia passuum cucurrimus. = We ran nine miles.
Pueri domum cucurrerunt. = The boys ran home.
Lucia celeriter cucurrit. = Lucia ran quickly.
Arma ceperunt. = They took arms.
Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit. (Horace) – Captured Greece has captured her savage captor. (A reference to the fact that, while the Romans conquered the Greeks, the culture of the Greeks ultimately dominated the native culture of the Romans).
In the next lesson we’ll continue with more verbs, including the slightly tricky deponent verbs. Valete et bonam fortunam!
Next lesson: Perfect tense 4